TEI Lex-0 — A baseline encoding for lexicographic data

Table of contents

1. Introduction

Achieving consistent encoding within a given community of practice has been a recurrent issue for the TEI Guidelines. The topic is of particular importance for lexical data if we think of the potential wealth of content we could gain from pooling together the information available in the variety of highly structured, historical and contemporary lexical resources. Still, the encoding possibilities offered by the Dictionaries Chapter in the Guidelines are too numerous and too flexible to guarantee sufficient interoperability and a coherent model for searching, visualising or enriching multiple lexical resources.

Following the spirit of TEI Analytics [Zillig, 2009], developed in the context of the MONK project, TEI Lex-0 aims at establishing a baseline encoding and a target format to facilitate the interoperability of heterogeneously encoded lexical resources. This is important both in the context of building lexical infrastructures as such [Ermolaev and Tasovac, 2012] and in the context of developing generic TEI-aware tools such as dictionary viewers and profilers. T

TEI Lex-0 should not be thought of as a replacement of the Dictionary Chapter in the TEI Guidelines or as the format that must be used for editing or managing individual resources, especially in those projects and/or institutions that already have established workflows based on their own flavors of TEI. TEI Lex-0 should be primarily seen as a format that existing TEI dictionaries can be univocally transformed to in order to be queried, visualised, or mined in a uniform way. At the same time, however, there is no reason why TEI Lex-0 could not or should not be used as a best-practice example in educational settings or as a set of best-practice guidelines for new TEI-based projects, especially considering the fact that in TEI Lex-0 we aimed to stay as aligned as possible with the TEI subset developed in conjunction with the revision of the ISO LMF (Lexical Markup Framework) standard (cf. [Romary, 2015])

1.1. Context

Preliminary work for the establishment of TEI Lex-0 started in the Working Group "Retrodigitised Dictionaries" lead by Toma Tasovac and Vera Hildenbrandt as part of the COST Action European Network of e-Lexicography (ENeL). Upon the completion of the COST Action, the work on TEI Lex-0 was taken up by the DARIAH Working Group "Lexical Resources" which is co-chaired by Laurent Romary and Toma Tasovac. Currently, the work on TEI Lex-0 is conducted by the DARIAH WG "Lexical Resources" and the H2020-funded European Lexicographic Infrastructure (ELEXIS).

1.2. Dictionary model vs. XML serialization

A fundamental principle that the present enterprise relies on is the nature of the mapping of the physical or “near-physical” (OCR-ed) dictionary contents onto the abstract model of a dictionary structure, and the mapping from said model onto its (in our case) TEI XML serialization. It is important to keep in mind the distinction between the abstract model and its serialization because, as we shall see, the TEI uses the same elements of the abstract model to serve many kinds of text-modelling tasks, and standardly employs ‘features’ or ‘facets’ of these elements (known in the XML world as attributes) to express differences among them. The fact that some elements of the serialization have names closely corresponding to what we can customarily find in the dictionary model is more or less a lucky coincidence. It is not the pattern to be expected. A lexicographer coming from outside of the TEI universe should not necessarily expect his or her customary terms (names of dictionary objects in the dictionary model) to be straightforwardly reflected in the TEI vocabulary names.

Take, for instance, the TEI element <cit>. Originally, its TEI name came from the word “citation” and this is what the element was used for up to the early days of TEI P5, when it acquired a new, broader function of grouping together pieces of text perceived or broadly treated as “foreign” or additional, together with their (bibliographic, linguistic, or usage-oriented) description. This element is nowadays used as a “container” for citations, dictionary examples, translation equivalents etc. The value of the attribute type is used to further specify the kind of cit-object at hand. In our case, four distinct names of dictionary objects in the abstract dictionary model (namely, “citation”, “example”, “translation” (of quotes) and “translation equivalent” (of words) map onto four distinct element+attribute combinations in the TEI XML serialization (respectively, <cit> with type="citation", <cit> with type="example", and <cit> with type="translation" or type="translationEquivalent".

The following example from a bilingual dictionary, shows how one typed element – <cit> – can be used to encode different parts of the dictionary structure:

<entry xml:lang="frxml:id="horrifier"  type="mainEntry">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>horrifier</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="pos">v</gram>  </gramGrp>  <sense>   <cit type="translationEquivalent"    xml:lang="en">    <quote>horrify</quote>   </cit>   <cit type="example">    <quote>elle était horrifiée par la dépense</quote>    <cit type="translationxml:lang="en">     <quote>she was horrified at the expense</quote>    </cit>   </cit>  </sense> </entry>

2. Entries and entry-like objects

2.1. Unified representation of entries

In the current Guidelines, the TEI defines four different container elements that may serve as grouping devices for lexical information on the level of entries (the following definitions are taken from the TEI guidelines, emphasis added):

  1. <entry>: contains a single structured entry in any kind of lexical resource, such as a dictionary or lexicon.
  2. <entryFree>: contains a single unstructured entry in any kind of lexical resource, such as a dictionary or lexicon.
  3. <superEntry>: groups a sequence of entries within any kind of lexical resource, such as a dictionary or lexicon which function as a single unit, for example a set of homographs.
  4. <re>: (related entry) contains a dictionary entry for a lexical item related to the headword, such as a compound phrase or derived form, embedded inside a larger entry.

These four elements can be used to distinguish types of entries along two conceptual axes:

  1. Containing vs. contained entries: entries may contain additional lexical information that can be conceived as an additional dictionary entry in its own right. Specifically, <superEntry> may contain <entry> and <entry> in turn may contain <re> to represent the embedding of lexical entries on three distinct levels. Due to <re> being allowed to be used recursively, the number of levels for representing entry-like lexical information inside other such blocks is effectively unrestricted.
  2. Structured vs. unstructured entries, i. e. entries that can readily be represented (in the lexical view) in the spirit of the TEI Guideline’s Dictionary Chapter (<entry>, <re>) vs. entries that for some reason violate the generic content model of <entry> or <re> and thus have to be represented more freely (<entryFree>). A third category in this respect are entries that exhibit a highly reduced amount of lexical content while this content is still of essentially entry-like nature (<superEntry>).

In TEI Lex-0, we refrain from this overly complex cross-classification of entries with regard to their place within an entry hierarchy (first axis above) and the rigidity of the lexical structuring they exhibit (second axis above). Instead of using four different elements for entry-like objects, only <entry> is used. In order to still be able to construct hierarchies of embedded entries, <entry> is in the context of TEI Lex-0 allowed to occur recursively (e.g. by making it part of model.entryPart.top). This is where TEI Lex-0 originally departed from the TEI Guidelines, but this proposal was presented to the TEI Council and subsequently adopted.

In the context of TEI-Lex-0, <entry> is used to encode the basic element of the dictionary microstructure; it groups all the information related to a particular linguistic entity and may contain further entries related to it (e.g. homographs or compound phrases).

The substitution of <re> and <superEntry> by <entry> is compatible with regard to the content model of the discarded elements. Both <re> and <superEntry> have content models that are proper subsets of the content model of <entry>. Instead of <superEntry> which most typically is used as a mere container for grouping lexical entries, either an <entry> grouping entries can be used or the mechanisms implemented by att.global.linking can be exploited.

Consider the following excerpt from the “Wörterbuch der deutschen Gegenwartssprache” (“Dictionary of Contemporary German”, WDG, 1964–1977). In the WDG, compounds with the same morphological dependant (but different heads) are grouped into nests. According to the current TEI Guidelines, such a nest would most probably be serialized as follows:

<superEntry>  <form>   <orth>Haus-</orth>, <orth>haus-</orth>:</form> <!-- possibly some shared usg information -->  <entry>   <form>    <orth expand="Hausaltar">-altar</orth>, <gramGrp>     <gen value="masculine">der</gen>    </gramGrp>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry>  <entry>   <form>    <orth expand="Hausandacht">-andacht</orth>, <gramGrp>     <gen value="feminine">die</gen>    </gramGrp>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry> <!-- ... --> </superEntry>

In TEI-Lex-0, this nest of entries would be modelled as an <entry> in its own right. Note that the former <superEntry> was transformed into a typed entry (see Types of entries below for a detailed discussion of entry types):

<entry type="wordFamilyxml:id="Haus-"  xml:lang="de">  <form type="base">   <orth>Haus-</orth>  </form>  <pc>,</pc>  <form type="base">   <orth>haus-</orth>  </form>  <pc>:</pc> <!-- possibly some shared usg information -->  <entry type="mainEntryxml:lang="de"   xml:id="Hausaltar">   <form type="lemma">    <orth expand="Hausaltar">-altar</orth>    <pc>,</pc>    <gramGrp>     <gram type="genvalue="masculine">der</gram>    </gramGrp>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry>  <entry type="mainEntryxml:lang="de"   xml:id="Hausandacht">   <form type="lemma">    <orth expand="Hausandacht">-andacht</orth>    <pc>,</pc>    <gramGrp>     <gram type="genvalue="feminine">die</gram>    </gramGrp>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry> <!-- ... --> </entry>

The same encoding strategy can be exploited when entries are grouped under a common morphological root as is customary for Arabic dictionaries such as the 48th edition of “The Dictionary of Language and Proper Nouns” (المنجد في اللغة والأعلام) presented below:

<entry type="wordFamily">  <form type="root">   <orth>ﺍﺮﻛ</orth>   <pc>:</pc>  </form>  <entry n="١-type="wordForm">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>ﺃَﺮَﻛَ</orth> -ُ ﺃُﺮُﻛًﺍ</form>   <sense> ﺎﻠﺠﻤﻟُ: ﺎﻜﻟ ﻭﺮﻗ ﺍﻷﺭَﺎﻛِ ٠ ﺃَﺮَﻛَ ٠- ﺃَﺮَﻛًﺍ ﺎﻠﺠﻤﻟُ ﺎﺸﺘﻛﻯ      ﺐﻄﻨﻫُ ﻢﻧ ﺄَﻜﻟ ﺍﻷﺭَﺎﻛِ ٠ ﺍﻷﺭﺎﻛ (ﻥ): ﻭﺎﺣﺪﺘﻫُ ﺃَﺭﺎﻛﺓ ﺝ ﺃُﺮُﻛ ﻭ      ﺃَﺭَﺎﺌِﻛ. ﺶﺟﺭ ﺫﻭ ﺵﻮﻛ. ﻁﻮﻴﻟ ﺎﻠﺳﺎﻗ، ﻚﺜﻳﺭ ﺎﻟﻭﺮﻗ ﻭ ﺍﻸﻐﺻﺎﻧ. ﺥﻭَّﺍﺭ      ﺎﻠﻋﻭﺩ ﺖﺘَّﺧﺫ ﻢﻨﻫ ﺎﻠﻤﺳﺍﻮﻴﻛ</sense>  </entry>  <entry n="٢٠ -type="wordForm">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>ﺃَﺮَﻛَ</orth>   </form>   <sense> ْ -َ ﺃَﺮَﻛًﺍ ﻭ ﺃَﺮِﻛَ ْ -ُ ﺃُﺮﻛًﺍ ﺎﻠﺟﺮﺣُ: ﺏﺭﺃَ</sense>  </entry> <!-- … --> </entry>

Note that the embedded entries are enumerated by way of the attribute @n.

This type of grouping is also customarily used in dictionaries of word-families in other languages such as in Howard H. Keller’s (1978): “A German word family dictionary together with English equivalents”:

<entry type="wordFamilyxml:lang="de"  xml:id="Haus">  <entry type="mainEntry">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>Haus</orth>    <gramGrp>     <gram type="pos">nn</gram>    </gramGrp>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry>  <entry type="relatedEntry">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>     <m>Häus</m>     <m>chen</m>    </orth>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry>  <entry type="relatedEntry">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>     <m>haus</m>     <m>en</m>    </orth>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry> </entry>

In the Collins/COBUILD “Dictionary of Idioms” (2nd. ed., 2002), idioms are grouped under a common headword. No additional information for the headword is provided; it only serves as part of the access structure for the idioms. This can also be modelled using recursive entries. Again, see Types of entries for a discussion of possible entry types:

<entry type="mainEntry">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>house</orth>  </form>  <entry type="relatedEntry">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>bring the house down</orth>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry>  <entry type="relatedEntry">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>eat someone out of house and        home</orth>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry>  <entry type="relatedEntry">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>get on like a house on fire</orth>   </form>   <sense>...</sense>  </entry> </entry>

For <entryFree>, the content model is defined more freely than for <entry>. To account for entries that do not follow the rather strict lexical model envisioned by the TEI Guidelines for <entry>, <dictScrap> within <entry> shall be used.

2.2. Changes to the content model of <entry>

In TEI Lex-0, <entry> may contain the following elements: <form>, <sense>, <entry>, <etym>, <gramGrp>, <usg>, <xr>, <pc>, and <dictScrap>. Contrary to the current TEI Guidelines, it may not directly contain the following elements: <def>, <hom>, and <cit>. See the section Towards a more systematic use of <sense> below.

In TEI Lex-0, <entry> has a mandatory xml:id attribute.

Furthermore, in TEI Lex-0, <entry> has a mandatory xml:lang attribute. This may appear superflous considering XML inheritance rules: in TEI proper, one would use an xml:lang attribute on the <text> element or even the root <TEI> element to indicate the source language of the dictionary and assume that the value of the attribute will be inherited by all the entries. In TEI Lex-0, we err on the side of overexplicitness in order to guarantee the global autonomy of the entry as a core element of the dictionary macrostructure.

2.3. Types of entries

Based on the proposed definition for <entry> in TEI-Lex-0, entries are conceived as “the most basic” elements of the microstructure. The examples provided in the section Unified representation of entries illustrate two applications of entries embedded within entries and make it obvious that different types of linguistic entities can be represented by <entry> in one single dictionary. Therefore, the provision of a type attribute for <entry> is encouraged in such cases. The value for the type attribute shall denote a property of the entry as a whole that is not represented more specifically by way of other elements within the entry. It is for example not good practice to use the part-of-speech as the value for entry/@type because this information is encoded in gramGrp/pos.

The current TEI Guidelines suggest the set of the following values for type:

Again, the list of values represent features from a considerable range of axes. Moreover, the features are not mutually exclusive (e.g. a foreign abbreviation may well be a homonym). The values belong to different domains: morphology (abbr), etymology (foreign), orthography and possibly phonology (hom), and (in a broad sense) the macrostructure of the dictionary (main, supplemental, xr). Of these domains, all except the dictionary’s macrostructure are catered for in specific elements below the level of the entry. They should therefore not be used as types of entries.

In general, the entry type can be applied locally for a single dictionary or globally to allow for classification across different dictionaries. Provided that a single dictionary will often comprise entries that describe linguistic entities of the same kind (“words”, word families, multi-word expressions, morphemes, …) a classification along those lines will be of minor importance for a stand-alone resource but may be useful in a multi-dictionary use-case.

Because <entry> is the only entry-like container in TEI Lex-0, and because TEI Lex-0 does no allow for other entry-like elements that exist in TEI (<entryFree>, <superEntry>, <hom>, <re>), TEI Lex-0 uses the type attribute on <entry> to classify entries based on the their macrostructural properties (i.e. properties describing aspects of the internal organization of a lexical resource). The type is required, and its possible values are:

This is still somewhat controversial. See this issue on GitHub.

3. Senses

3.1. General remarks

In the current TEI Dictionary Chapter, the content model of <entry> allows one to have sense-related information directly within <entry>. TEI Lex-0 proscribes a stricter use of these elements so that sense-related information is grouped within the <sense> element, in accordance with the underlying semasiological model implemented in the TEI Guidelines.

<sense> should be therefore considered mandatory for any dictionary entry that actually provides sense information for the headword. Further in this document, we consider some additional specific cases e.g. “referencing” entries (entires that simply point to other entries) and inflexional lexica (dictionaries that describe word forms only), where <sense> is not a mandatory child of <entry>.

As a consequence of making the use of <sense> more systematic within <entry>, we have seen (see section on <entry>) that some elements are no longer allowed as children of <entry>. We provide here a specific background for each of them:

Note: In the case one has to deal with information that does not fit a <sense>-based organization, for instance in the process of retro-digitizing an existing dictionary source, the use of <dictScrap> is recommended. Further step in the encoding of the lexical content may lead to a more precise encoding in a second phase.

In TEI Lex-0, <sense> has a mandatory xml:id.

3.2. A limited number of possible contexts for <def>

In the current TEI guidelines, <def> is allowed to be used within the following elements:

TEI Lex-0 allows the use of <def> in <sense>, <cit> and <etym> only. All other existing contexts would be implemented by embedding <def> within a <sense>.

3.3. Encoding sense in entries with multiple parts of speech

For multi-POS lexical entries, TEI Lex-0 considers each POS as a trigger for a new sense. Consequently, we recommend encoding grammatical information in each sense coming after the first one to be serialised inside the semantic bloc as follows:

<sense>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="pos">..</gram>  </gramGrp>  <def>..</def> .. </sense>

Consider this example, where arrest appears both as a verb and a noun:

<entry type="mainEntryxml:lang="en"  xml:id="arrest">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>arrest</orth>   <pron>/ə rest/</pron>  </form>  <sense xml:id="sense_verb">   <gramGrp>    <gram type="pos">verb</gram>   </gramGrp>   <usg type="hint">(of the police)</usg>   <def>to catch and hold someone who has broken the law</def>   <cit type="example">    <quote>The police arrested two men and took them to the police        station</quote>   </cit>   <pc>.</pc>   <cit type="example">    <quote>He ended up getting arrested as he tried to leave the        country</quote>   </cit>   <pc>.</pc>   <cit type="example">    <quote>She was arrested for stealing</quote>   </cit>  </sense>  <pc>.</pc>  <sense xml:id="sense_noun">   <gramGrp>    <gram type="pos">noun</gram>   </gramGrp>   <def>the act of holding someone for breaking the law</def>   <cit type="example">    <quote>The police made several arrests at the        demonstration.</quote>   </cit>   <entry type="relatedEntry">    <form>under arrest</form>    <sense>     <def>held by the police</def>     <pc>,</pc>     <cit type="example">      <quote>After the fight, three people were under            arrest.</quote>     </cit>    </sense>   </entry>  </sense> </entry>

3.4. Case of bilingual dictionaries

Excerpt from the entry aid from XXX
<entry type="mainEntryxml:lang="en"  xml:id="aid">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>Aid</orth>  </form>  <pc>,</pc>  <sense xml:id="aid_v_a">   <gramGrp>    <gram type="pos">v.a.</gram>   </gramGrp>   <cit type="translationEquivalent"    xml:lang="fr">    <form>     <orth>aider</orth>    </form>   </cit>   <pc>,</pc>   <cit type="translationEquivalent"    xml:lang="fr">    <form>     <orth>assister</orth>    </form>   </cit>   <pc>,</pc>   <cit type="translationEquivalent"    xml:lang="fr">    <form>     <orth>secourir</orth>    </form>   </cit>  </sense>  <pc>;</pc>  <sense xml:id="aid_s">   <oRef>_</oRef>   <gramGrp>    <gram type="pos">s.</gram>   </gramGrp>   <cit type="translationEquivalent"    xml:lang="fr">    <form>     <orth>aide</orth>    </form>   </cit>   <pc>,</pc>   <cit type="translationEquivalent"    xml:lang="fr">    <form>     <orth>assistance</orth>     <pc>,</pc>     <gramGrp>      <gram type="gen">f.</gram>     </gramGrp>    </form>   </cit>   <pc>,</pc>   <cit type="translationEquivalent"    xml:lang="fr">    <form>     <orth>secours</orth>     <pc>,</pc>     <gramGrp>      <gram type="gen">m.</gram>     </gramGrp>    </form>   </cit>  </sense>  <pc>;</pc>  <sense>   <cit type="translationEquivalent"    xml:lang="fr">    <form>     <orth>sub-side</orth>    </form>    <pc>,</pc>    <gramGrp>     <gen>m.</gen>    </gramGrp>   </cit>  </sense>  <pc>;</pc>  <sense>   <usg type="hint">(pers)</usg>   <cit type="translationEquivalent"    xml:lang="fr">    <form>     <orth>aide</orth>    </form>    <pc>,</pc>    <gramGrp>     <gram type="gen">m.</gram>     <gram type="gen">f.</gram>    </gramGrp>   </cit>  </sense>  <entry type="relatedEntryxml:lang="en"   xml:id="by_the_aid_of">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>By the <oRef>_</oRef> of</orth>   </form>   <pc>,</pc>   <sense>    <cit type="translationEquivalent"     xml:lang="fr">     <form>      <orth>à l'aide de</orth>     </form>    </cit>   </sense>  </entry>  <pc>.</pc>  <entry type="relatedEntry">   <form>    <orth>In <oRef>_</oRef> of</orth>   </form>   <pc>,</pc>   <sense>    <usg type="hint">(of performances)</usg>    <cit type="translationEquivalent"     xml:lang="fr">     <form>      <orth>au            profit de</orth>     </form>    </cit>    <pc>,</pc>    <cit type="translationEquivalent">     <form>      <orth>au bénéfice            de</orth>     </form>    </cit>   </sense>  </entry>  <pc>.</pc>  <entry type="derivedxml:lang="en">   <form type="lemma">    <orth>_less</orth>    <pc>,</pc>    <gramGrp>     <gram type="pos">adj.</gram>    </gramGrp>   </form>   <sense>    <cit type="translationEquivalent"     xml:lang="fr">     <form>      <orth>sans aide</orth>     </form>    </cit>    <pc>,</pc>    <cit type="translationEquivalent"     xml:lang="fr">     <form>      <orth>sans secours</orth>     </form>    </cit>   </sense>   <pc>;</pc>   <sense>    <cit type="translationEquivalent"     xml:lang="fr">     <form>      <orth>abandonné</orth>     </form>    </cit>    <pc>,</pc>    <cit type="translationEquivalent"     xml:lang="fr">     <form>      <orth>délaissé</orth>     </form>    </cit>   </sense>  </entry> </entry>

3.5. Deprecating <hom>

Making a clear difference between a situation where an entry has to be split into two or more homonyms and one where these differences correspond to a semantic alternation is lexicographically difficult. Still, the main danger in keeping both possibilities in the representation of a lexical entry in a digital lexicon is to introduce a systematic structural ambiguity as to where the appropriate information is to be found. We thus deprecate <hom> altogether in the present recommendation and have this element be replaced by the appropriate <sense> construct. For instance, the following example from the TEI Guidelines:

<entry>  <form>   <orth>bray</orth>   <pron>breI</pron>  </form>  <hom>   <gramGrp>    <gram type="pos">n</gram>   </gramGrp>   <sense>    <def>cry of an ass; sound of a trumpet.</def>   </sense>  </hom>  <hom>   <gramGrp>    <gram type="pos">vt</gram>    <subc>VP2A</subc>   </gramGrp>   <sense>    <def>make a cry or sound of this kind.</def>   </sense>  </hom> </entry>

would in TEI Lex-0 be represented as:

<entry type="mainEntryxml:id="bray"  xml:lang="en">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>bray</orth>   <pron>brel</pron>  </form>  <sense xml:id="bray_n">   <gramGrp>    <gram type="pos">n</gram>   </gramGrp>   <sense xml:id="bray_n.1">    <def>cry of an ass</def>   </sense>   <pc>;</pc>   <sense xml:id="bray_n.2">    <def>sound of a trumpet</def>   </sense>  </sense>  <pc>.</pc>  <sense xml:id="bray_vt">   <gramGrp>    <gram type="pos">vt</gram>    <gram type="subc">VP2A</gram>   </gramGrp>   <def>make a cry or sound of this kind</def>  </sense>  <pc>.</pc> </entry>

4. Written and Spoken Forms

The current TEI Guidelines allows for an extremely wide range of encoding possibilities for written and spoken forms. In the discussion which follows, we suggest ways in which the elements, in particular <form>, can be constrained. We give examples of use types not covered by the Guidelines, and propose some extensions.

4.1. A note on inheritance

We assume that in order to determine the complete properties of an element inside the entry tree, the principle of default inheritance applies, e.g. grammatical properties of a form are determined by collecting the sibling <gramGrp> of the ancestor-or-self of the focus element, where the superordinate grammatical properties can be overwritten by the lower-level properties. This principle is relatively straightforward in the case of grammatical properties, but more complex for the word paradigm, esp. in cases of variant forms. For more information c.f. Ide et al. (2000) and Erjavec et al. (2000).

4.2. Grammatical properties of lexical entries

Grammatical properties of lexical entries should be specified in entry/gramGrp. This element will typically specify the part-of-speech of the entry.

<entry xml:lang="entype="mainEntry"  xml:id="on">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>on</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="pos">prep</gram>  </gramGrp> ... </entry>

Notes:

  1. Grammatical properties of the entry should not be specified in entry/form[@type="lemma"]/gramGrp
  2. In cases where headwords are discriminated only on the basis of their orthography (e.g. in English dictionaries which treat conversion pairs of nouns and verbs, such as run, as belonging in single entries), entry/gramGrp should not be used, because its role is taken over by the individual sense/gramGrp.
<entry>  <form>   <orth>aid</orth>   <pron>/ed/</pron>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <pos>noun</pos>  </gramGrp>  <sense>   <sense>1. help, especially money, <lb/>food or other gifts given to      people living <lb/> in difficult conditions aid to the      earth-<lb/>quake zone an aid worker (NOTE: This <lb/>meaning of      aid has no plural.) in aid <lb/>of in order to help We give      money in <lb/> aid of the Red Cross. They are collect-<lb/>ing      money in aid of refugees</sense>   <pc>. </pc>   <sense>2. some-<lb/>thing which helps you to do something   <lb/>kitchen aids</sense> í </sense>  <sense>   <gramGrp>    <pos>verb</pos>   </gramGrp>   <sense>1. to help some-<lb/>thing to happen</sense>   <sense>2. to help someone</sense>  </sense> </entry>

4.3. Representation of the lemma

The form element should always be qualified by its type. The lemma (i.e. headword) form should be encoded as form[@type="lemma"].

If it is necessary to specify the grammatical properties of the lemma form itself (as opposed to the grammatical properties of the entry), this is described by entry/form[@type="lemma"]/gramGrp, e.g.:

<form type="lemma">  <orth>go</orth>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="tense">present</gram>  </gramGrp> </form>

4.4. Representation of inflected forms

Dictionaries often include additional forms next to the lemma. In English, these are used to specify irregular forms, such as “corpus / corpora” or “take / took”, whereas in inflectionally rich languages they are often used to help the user determine the correct paradigm of the word (such as “krava / -e” in Slovene).

Such inflected forms should be encoded in entry/form/@type="inflected", e.g.:

<entry>  <form type="lemma">   <orth>go</orth>  </form>  <form type="inflected">   <orth>went</orth>   <gramGrp>    <tns>past</tns>   </gramGrp>  </form> </entry>

...

4.5. Paradigms

When several inflected forms can be present next to the lemma, these can be embedded into entry/form[@type="paradigm"]. The decision on whether to use this extra element depends on the particular dictionary and language.

The other use case for paradigms is when the full inflectional paradigm of the word is embedded in the entry, i.e. when the dictionary also includes all the word-forms of the words covered, which can be useful for example in machine processing.

An entry may contain several paradigms, e.g. a partial one for humans and a full one for machines, or one for each stem of a verb. Each paradigm type should be distinguished by the subtype attribute.

<entry xml:id="perderxml:lang="es">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>perder</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="pos">verb</gram>  </gramGrp>  <form type="paradigmsubtype="present">   <form type="inflected">    <orth>pierdo</orth>    <gramGrp>     <gram type="per">1</gram>     <gram type="number">sg</gram>     <gram type="mood">indic</gram>     <gram type="voice">active</gram>    </gramGrp>   </form> <!-- other inflected forms (of present indicative) here -->   <gramGrp>    <gram type="tns">present</gram>   </gramGrp>  </form>  <form type="paradigmsubtype="preteritum">   <form type="inflected">    <orth>perdí</orth>    <gramGrp>     <gram type="per">1</gram>     <gram type="number">sg</gram>     <gram type="mood">indic</gram>     <gram type="voice">active</gram>    </gramGrp>   </form>   <gramGrp>    <gram type="tns">preteritum</gram>   </gramGrp>  </form> ... </entry>

4.6. Representation of variants

The representation of variation within a form is highly dependant upon the specifics of the features of the variation and the way in which they vary. However, as a general principle, variation may be encoded as form[@type="variant"] and embedded within the parent element for which a subordinate feature exhibits variation.

4.6.1. Orthographic variation

Several kinds of orthographic variation may be distinguished. Below, we present some of the options with the corresponding examples.

Spelling variation due to change in language’s orthography convention:

<entry xml:id="Flussschifffahrt"  xml:lang="detype="compound">  <form type="lemma">   <orth type="segmeted">    <seg>Fluss</seg>    <seg>schifffahrt</seg>   </orth>   <form type="variant">    <orth>     <seg>Fluss</seg>     <pc>-</pc>     <seg>Schifffahrt</seg>    </orth>   </form>   <form type="variant">    <orth notAfter="1996">     <seg>Fluß</seg>     <seg>schifffahrt</seg>    </orth>    <usg type="time">Vor 1996 Rechtschreibung Reform</usg>   </form>   <gramGrp>    <gram type="pos">noun</gram>   </gramGrp>  </form> .... </entry>

The following example is from American English in which due to the lack of official conventions for transliteration of Arabic orthography to the English (Latin) script, the initial vowel in the surname ‘Osama Bin Laden’ varies between ‘O’ and ‘U’:

<form type="lemma">  <pron notation="ipa">   <seg xml:id="ousmacorresp="#usma #osma">ow."sa.ma</seg>   <seg>bɪn</seg>   <seg>ˈlaːdn̹</seg>  </pron>  <form type="variant">   <orth type="transliterated">    <seg xml:id="osma"     corresp="#usma #ousma">Osama</seg>    <seg>Bin</seg>    <seg>Laden</seg>   </orth>  </form>  <form type="variant">   <orth type="transliterated">    <seg xml:id="usma"     corresp="#osma #ousma">Usama</seg>    <seg>Bin</seg>    <seg>Laden</seg>   </orth>  </form> </form>

4.6.2. Phonetic Variation

In this example, the entry contains the single orthographic form as a direct child of the lemma and phonetic transcriptions of the two roughly equally used variant pronunciations of the word 'caramel' from American English.

<entry xml:id="caramel-enxml:lang="en-US">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>caramel</orth>   <form type="variant">    <pron notation="ipa">'keɹə"mɛl</pron>   </form>   <form type="variant">    <pron notation="ipa">'kaɹmɫ̩</pron>   </form>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="pos">noun</gram>  </gramGrp> <!-- ... --> </entry>

We have an open GitHub issue related to this.

4.6.3. Regional or dialectal Variation

In the following example from Mixtepec-Mixtec, there is variation in the form of the word for the city of Oaxaca between speakers from the village of Yucanany and the rest of the speakers. Since the Yucanany variety makes up only a small portion of the speakers of the language, this case of variation is represented as an embedded form[@type="variant"] within the lemma. Note the use of usg[@type="geo"]/placeName to explicitly specify this feature in addition to the use of the private language subtag (xml:lang="mix-x-YCNY") as per BCP 47.

<entry xml:id="Oaxaca-MIXxml:lang="mix"  type="compound">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>    <seg>Ñuu</seg>    <seg>Ntua</seg>   </orth>   <pron notation="ipa">    <seg>ɲùù</seg>    <seg>nd̪ùá</seg>   </pron>   <form type="variant"    xml:lang="mix-x-YCNY">    <orth>Ntua</orth>    <pron notation="ipa">nd̪ùá</pron>    <usg type="geo">     <placeName>Yucanany</placeName>    </usg>   </form>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="pos">locationNoun</gram>  </gramGrp> ... </entry>

5. Cross-references

5.1. General remarks

The current TEI Guidelines provide several mechanisms by means of which one item of lexical information can refer to another, e.g.:

In keeping with the approach of the TEI Lex-0, and considering that links/relations between lexical data elements are increasingly part of the core lexical data model rather than mere convenience pointers for dictionary users, we need a more unified and more constrained mechanism for lexical references, whether they point to an existing lexical entity in some dictionary or lexicon, or in a more general way to lexical objects without a target reference.

The proposed mechanism has the following properties

  1. It applies only to references with a clear linguistic meaning.
  2. The number of arbitrary (or context-dependent) choices for the encoder is minimal; the semantics of the reference should not depend on context
  3. The relation between the encoding dictionary content and the underlying/implied lexical data model should be as transparent as possible
  4. No drastic changes to the TEI guidelines are needed, except for minor changes within the dictionary module

In the following we first present the recommended encoding, and then elicit how existing alternatives can be replaced accordingly.

5.2. Using <ref> and <xr> to point to lexical entities

In TEI Lex-0, we use <ref> as the general element for a lexical reference and <xr> as the enclosing element that groups information related to this reference. The reference may be internal to a dictionary or pointing to an external source, even when the actual target lexical object is not explicitly known. In the latter case, <ref> can be used without an explicit pointing attribute. Furthermore the actual intended target of the reference can be of various possible types, namely a full entry, but also a specific sense, form or morpheme within a given entry.

For all such uses, the following attributes may be used on <xr> and <ref>:

5.2.1. Typology for xr/@type values

We suggest an extensible list of values, including “cf" for general references which do not have clear semantics.

NOTE: this table is no longer valid. We've implemented the list of possible values for @type (which may be expanded if necessary) but we still haven't updated the examples here. See the specification for xr in xr (cross-reference phrase) contains a phrase, sentence, or icon referring the reader to some other location in this or another text.type.

value of @typedescriptionexample
lexicaldefault (root of hierarchy)
synonym, hyponym, hyperonym, antonym , meronym (etc.)
<entry>  <form type="lemma">   <orth>dog</orth>  </form>  <sense>   <xr type="hyperonym">    <ref xml:lang="en"     type="entry">mammal</ref>   </xr>  </sense> </entry>
translationEquivalenttranslation equivalent
<entry>  <form type="lemma">   <orth>horrify</orth>  </form>  <sense>   <xr type="translationEquivalent">    <ref xml:lang="fr">horrifier</ref>   </xr>  </sense> </entry>
cfUntyped cross-reference
<entry>  <form type="lemma">   <orth>borcht</orth>  </form>  <xr type="cf">   <lbl>Cf.</lbl>   <ref xml:lang="nl"    target="#M012340">burcht</ref>  </xr> </entry>

The full specification of <xr> in TEI Lex 0 is:xr (cross-reference phrase) contains a phrase, sentence, or icon referring the reader to some other location in this or another text.type

5.2.2. Values of ref/@target

  • If the reference has no explicit target, no target is used.
  • As per TEI pointing mechanisms, the value of target must be an URI reference.
  • For internal references (references to the same dictionary), TEI Lex-0 enforces the use of explicit pointers to the xml:id of an element being pointed to, preceded by #. See Section "Pointing Locally" in the TEI Guidelines.
  • TEI pointers should not be used in TEI Lex-0.

5.2.3. How TEI Lex-0 differs from TEI Guidelines

This section is still not properly encoded.

descriptioncurrent encodingproposed encoding
synonyms, hyponyms, hyperonyms (and other semantic relations)
<usg type="synonym">Hund</usg>
<xr type="synonym">  <ref target="http://woerterbuchnetz.de/DWB/?sigle=DWB&amp;mode=Vernetzung&amp;lemid=GH13199#XGH13199"   xml:lang="de">Hund</ref> </xr>
abbreviated headword occurrence in quotations
<q>The Royal <oRef type="cap"/> of Arts</q>
The Royal <xr type="headwordAttestation">  <ref target="#current_entry_id">A~</ref> of Arts </xr>
translation of headword (possibly in a particular senses/context)
<entry> <!-- ... -->  <cit type="translation"   xml:lang="en">   <quote>to horrify</quote>  </cit>  <cit type="example">   <quote>elle était horrifiée par la dépense</quote>   <cit type="translation"    xml:lang="en">    <quote>she was horrified at the expense.</quote>   </cit>  </cit> </entry>
<entry xml:id="uniqe_id_in_the_context_of_this_dictionary"  xml:lang="fr"> <!-- ... -->  <cit type="translationEquivalent"   xml:lang="en">   <quote>to horrify</quote>  </cit>  <cit type="example">   <quote>elle était horrifiée par la dépense</quote>   <cit type="translation"    xml:lang="en">    <quote>she was horrified at the expense.</quote>   </cit>  </cit> </entry>
collocates in gramGrp4
<gramGrp>  <colloc>stray</colloc> </gramGrp>
<gramGrp>  <colloc>   <xr type="collocation">    <ref target="http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/191378?rskey=WgfOMW&amp;result=2&amp;isAdvanced=false#eid">stray</ref>   </xr>  </colloc> </gramGrp>

5.3. <xr> and <ref>: further examples

5.3.1. Simple cross-reference to an entry

<entry>  <form type="lemma">   <orth>borcht</orth>  </form>  <xr type="cf">   <lbl>Cf.</lbl>   <ref target="#M012340">burcht</ref>  </xr> </entry>

5.3.2. More complex example including quotations

<entry>  <form type="lemma">   <orth>dog</orth>  </form>  <sense>   <xr type="translationEquivalent">    <lbl>Male or unknown gender</lbl>    <ref xml:lang="frtype="entry">chien</ref>    <cit>     <quote xml:lang="fr"> Le matin j'ouvre au <xr type="headwordAttestation">       <ref type="entry">chien</ref>      </xr> et je lui fais          manger sa soupe. Le soir je lui siffle de venir se          coucher</quote>     <bibl>RENARD, Poil de Carotte, 1894, p. 102.</bibl>     <cit type="translation"> <!-- included in the french cit, otherwise relation is lost -->      <quote xml:lang="en">In the morning, I open the door            for the dog, and i ...</quote>     </cit>     <bibl> <!-- If the translation is from a published source, there could be a bibl here as well -->     </bibl>    </cit>   </xr>   <xr type="translationEquivalent">    <lbl>Female</lbl>    <ref xml:lang="frtype="entry">chienne</ref>    <cit xml:lang="fr">     <quote>6. Les fleuristes, murmura Lorilleux, toutes des          Marie-couche-toi-là. Eh bien! Et moi? reprit la          grande veuve, les lèvres pincées. Vous êtes galant.          Vous savez, je ne suis pas une <xr type="the_type_formerly_known_as_oref">       <ref type="entry">chienne</ref>      </xr> , je ne me          mets pas les pattes en l'air, quand on siffle! </quote>     <bibl>ZOLA, L'Assommoir, 1877, p. 681.</bibl> <!-- possible translation -->     <cit type="translation">…..</cit>    </cit>   </xr>  </sense> </entry>

5.3.3. Cross-references inside definitions

Under consideration. See this issue on GitHub.

6. Usage information

In the current TEI guidelines, <usg> is defined as an element which marks up “usage information in a dictionary entry”. Prototypically, usage information is a label which can be attached at various points in the entry hierarchy in order to signal e. g. restrictions in terms of geographic regions, domains of specialized language or stylistic properties for the particular lexical item that it is attached to.

6.1. Label-like vs. narrative usage descriptions

Usage information ca be provided in dictionaries both in the form of label-like descriptors (often abbreviated) and as fuller narrative expressions.

Consider, for instance, the following senses taken from a German entry for Pflaume “plum” where usage information is provided by labels taken from fixed sets of values for stylistic and diatopic properties:

<sense n="1">  <def xml:lang="de">Frucht des Pflaumenbaums</def>  <def xml:lang="en">fruit of the plum tree</def> </sense> <sense n="2">  <usg type="registernorm="colloquial">ugs.</usg>  <def xml:lang="de">Pflaumenbaum</def>  <def xml:lang="en">plum tree</def> </sense> <sense n="3">  <usg type="stylenorm="casual">salopp</usg>  <usg type="stylenorm="expletive">Schimpfwort</usg>  <def xml:lang="de">ungeschickter, untauglicher Mensch</def>  <def xml:lang="en">awkward, ineligible person</def> </sense> <sense n="4">  <usg type="geonorm="regional">landsch.</usg>  <usg type="stylenorm="casual">salopp</usg>  <def xml:lang="de">anzügliche, leicht boshafte Bemerkung</def>  <def xml:lang="en">offensive, slightly mischievous remark</def> </sense>

In contrast to the example above, the following sample features an occurrence of a more verbose usage description that does not rely on a fixed vocabulary. The sample is taken from a Serbian dialect dictionary. The quote in the dialect is further qualified by a usage hint: “(said by a peasant woman in the field in hot weather)” which provides a particular context in which the quote was recorded.

<cit type="example">  <quote>„Ду́ни, ве́тре, се́јче леб да пе́че”</quote>  <usg type="hint">(рекла сељанка на њиви за време врућине)</usg>  <bibl>(<placeName>Дубница</placeName>).</bibl> </cit>

6.2. Types of usage informationNote: frequency information in a dictionary: usage? (corpus based dictionary with frequency information)oldest attestation: date + location of oldest attestation of an entry in a corpus based dictionary: usage?

In lexicographic literature, usage information is not always uniformly classified. Compare, for instance, Svendsen (2009):

(image taken from Marcin Overgaard, Theoretical Considerations for the Improvement of Usage Labelling in Dictionaries: a Combined Formal-Functional Approach. In: International Journal of Lexicography, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 411–442.)

and Atkins and Rundell (2008)

B.T. Atkins and M. Rundell, The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography. Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 183

Svendsen and Atkins and Rundell can, however, be mapped against each other – with the exception of one category which is present only in the latter:

SvendsenAtkins and RundellExamplesSummary
Diachronic marking (Time)Timearch., dated, ...TIME
Diatopic marking (Place)RegionAmE., dial. ...GEO
Diaintegrative marking (Nationality)-Lat., ...LANGUAGE
Diastratic marking (Socio-Cultural)Register / Styleformal, informal, journalese ...SOCIO-CULTURAL
Diatechnical marking (Technicality)DomainMil., Biol., ...DOMAIN
Diafrequential marking (Frequency)FREQUENCY
Diaevaluative marking (Attitude)Attitudepejor., iron., ...ATTITUDE
Dianormative marking (Normativity)NORMATIVITY
Meaning typeLit., Fig. ...MEANING TYPE

In TEI, <usg> is a typed element. The type of a <usg> element can be conceived as a conceptual axis (independent from other types) along which the given value of the element is located. The TEI Guidelines offer a range of sample values for types to illustrate potential uses of <usg>, but not al of them have been carried over to TEI Lex-0. The following table shows the differences between suggested values of type in TEI and the required values of type in TEI Lex-0:

suggested values in TEI P5corresponding Svendsen – Atkins and Rundell mapping TEI Lex-0example value
geoGEOgeographicAmE., dial.
timeTIMEtemporalarchaic, old
domDOMAINdomainscientific, literary
regSOCIO-CULTURALsocioCulturalslang, vulgar
style-meaningTypefigurative, literal
plev-frequencyrare, occas.
-attitudeformal, informal
-normativitynon-standard
langLANGUAGE-
gram--
syn--
hyper--
colloc--
comp--
obj--
subj--
verb--
hint-hint

In TEI-Lex-0:

  1. The type attribute is made mandatory.
  2. The element <usg> is used in a narrower sense than is currently the case in the TEI Guidelines.
  3. The norm attribute is encouraged.

Justification:

  1. Without type attribute, <usg> would be an underspecified element. Usage labels describe a wide range of linguistic phenomena. Classifying them should be considered a good practice.
  2. Currently, the TEI Guidelines contain an overuse of <usg> for describing phenomena that could be covered by alternative, more narrowly defined TEI elements. It should be considered a good practice to use the most specific TEI element available. See table above and the next section Restricting the scope of <usg>
  3. It is good practice to normalize the values of the <usg> elements because dictionaries are not always consistent in the way they use their usage labels. For instance, abbreviated and unabbreviated labels can appear in the same dictionary: they should be normalized to a single value. Normalization should be only restricted to a single dictionary. A global normalization effort is currently beyond the scope of TEI Lex-0.

6.3. Restricting the scope of <usg>

  1. Do not use <usg type="lang"> to mark up the name of a language in an etymological or other discussion. The recommended way to encode this information is using <lang> element within <etym>.

    INCORRECT

    <entryFree xml:id="MZ.RGJS.сајдисльк_1">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>сајдисль́к</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="pos">м</gram>  </gramGrp>  <usg type="lang">тур.</usg>  <sense>   <def>уважавање.</def></sense> </entryFree>

    CORRECT

    <entry xml:id="MZ.RGJS.сајдисльк_2">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>сајдисль́к</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="pos">м</gram>  </gramGrp>  <etym>   <lang value="tr">тур.</lang>  </etym>  <sense>   <def>уважавање.</def></sense> </entry>
  2. Do not use <usg type="hyper"> or <usg type="syn"> to mark lexical relations such as hyperonymy or synonymy. The recommended way to encode lexical relations is using the reference mechanism provided by <xr type="syn">. TOMA TODO: add examples
  3. Do not use <usg type="colloc"> or for that matter "comp.", "obj.", "subj.", "verb" etc., but rather <colloc type="object"> or <colloc type="preposition">.
  4. <usg type="hint"> should be used as fallback for cases where the usage information does not fall into one of the recognized cases discussed above.
  5. Frequency information on lexicographic entities may differ from other types of usage information in that it often cannot be interpreted without further context. In phrases such as “mostly biology” or “rarely used in American English” it serves the purpose of a modifier (quantifier) to another usage information (or other lexical information). Such use calls for modeling the frequency information as an attribute to the usg element modified. For frequency information provided explicitly (e.g. corpus frequencies), a separate element should be introduced. TODO

stuff to think about:

7. Etymology

This section needs to be transferred from Jack's and Laurent's paper.

8. References

9. Cited sources

Charles Du Cange. Glossarium ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimae Graecitatis, http://anemi.lib.uoc.gr/metadata/f/4/b/metadata-01-0000493.tkl Apud Amissonios.

10. Bibliography

A Formal Model of Dictionary Structure and Content, Nancy Ide 131850
,
Adam Kilgarriff 198330
,
Laurent Romary. 0707.3270Proceedings of Euralex 2000, (Euralex 2000, 2000-08-08. 2000-08-12. Stuttgart Germany) 2000. pp. 113-126.

11. Annex A: Arabic examples to illustrate recursive entries

Digitised SampleTEI-Lex Encoding
Note: In this example, the root entry contains entries which don't have necessarily related meanings
<entry type="family">  <form type="root">   <orth type="lemma">سيج</orth>  </form>  <pc>:</pc> <!-- To fence (verb) -->  <entry>   <form type="lemma">    <orth>سيّج</orth>   </form>   <sense>الكرم: جعل له سياجا</sense>   <pc>٠</pc>  </entry> <!-- A fence (noun) -->  <entry>   <form type="lemma">    <orth>السياج</orth> ج سيَاجات وأسْوِجة وأَسْوِجة      وسُوج</form>   <pc>:</pc>   <sense>الحائط</sense> || <sense>ما أُحيط بهِ على شيءٍ كالكرم      و النخل</sense>  </entry>  <pc>٠</pc> <!-- A kind of fish -->  <entry>   <form type="lemma">    <orth>السيْجان</orth> (ح)</form>   <pc>:</pc>   <sense>نوع من السمك</sense>  </entry> </entry>
Note: In this example, the content of the root entry is organised by sense where each sense is composed of different entries listed by POS.
<entry type="family">  <form type="root">   <orth>شهم</orth>  </form>  <pc>:</pc>  <entry type="family">١ــ <!-- To rebuff a horse or to scare a man -->   <entry>    <form>     <orth type="lemma">شَهَم</orth>َ ــ شَهْمًا وشُهُمًا    </form> `<sense>الفرسَ: زجرهُ || و ــ الرجُلَ:        افزعه</sense>   </entry> ٠ <entry>    <form>     <orth type="lemma"> اَلمشْهوم</orth>    </form>٠: <sense>المذعور</sense>   </entry> Note: scared    (adjective) </entry>  <sense>٢٠ ــ <!-- chivalrous -->   <entry>    <form>     <form>      <orth type="lemma">شَهُمَ</orth> ـُـ     </form>شَهَامةً و شُهُومَة</form>ُُ<pc>:</pc>    <sense>كان شهْم</sense>   </entry> ٠ <entry>    <form>     <orth type="lemma">الشَهْم </orth>ج شِهام</form>:   <sense>     <sense>الذكيّ الفؤاد</sense> ||    <sense>السيِّد النافذ الحكم</sense> || <sense>وــ          ج شُهُم: الفرس النشيط السريع          القوي</sense>    </sense>ّ </entry>Note:    powerful/clever/rapid and strong٠ <entry>    <form>     <orth type="lemma">اَلمَشْهُوم</orth>    </form> *:   <sense>الذكيّ الفؤاد</sense>   </entry>Note: clever </sense>  <sense>٠٣ ــ <!-- a male Hedgehog -->   <entry>    <form>     <orth type="lemma">الشَيْهَم</orth> ج شَيَهِم (ح)    </form>    <sense>ذَكَر القنافذ</sense>   </entry>Note: ٠<entry>    <form>     <orth type="lemma">الشَيْهَمَة</orth>    </form>:   <sense>العجوز</sense>   </entry>Note: old woman  </sense> </entry>
<entry type="root">  <form type="lemma">   <orth>ارك</orth>  </form>: ١-<sense>   <entry>    <form type="lemma">     <orth>أَرَكَ</orth> -ُ أُرُكًا</form>    <sense>الجملُ: اكل ورق الأَرَاك</sense>   </entry>Note: (verb) to eat the "Salvadora persica" plant>٠<entry>    <form type="lemma">     <orth>أَرَكَ ٠</orth>- أَرَكًا</form>    <sense>الجملُ اشتكى بطنهُ من أَكل الأَرَاك</sense>   </entry>Note: to have stomachaches from eating the    "Salvadora persica" plantِ ٠ <entry>    <form type="lemma">     <orth>الأَراك</orth> (ن): واحدتهُ أَراكة ج أُرُك        و أَرَائِك</form>. <sense>شجر ذو شوك. طويل الساق،        كثير الورق و الأغصان. خوَّار العود تتَّخذ منه        المساويك</sense>   </entry>Note: The "Salvadora    persica" plant </sense> ٢٠ - <sense>   <entry>    <form type="lemma">     <orth>أَرَكَ</orth> ْ -َ</form>    <sense>أَرَكًا</sense>   </entry>Note: ? و <entry>    <form type="lemma">     <orth>أَرِكَ</orth> ْ -ُ        أُركًا</form>    <sense>الجرحُ: برأ</sense>   </entry>Note: got healed </sense>َ ٣٠ - <sense>   <entry>    <form type="lemma">     <orth>أرْوكاريا</orth>(ن)</form>:   <sense>شجرة باسقة من فصيلة الصنوبريَّات.منبتها        الاصلي٠ اميركا الجنوبية، تزرع في الحدائق للزينة،        اوراقها شائكة تنبت حتى على الجذع</sense>   </entry>Note: Monkey puzzles plant </sense> § ٤٠ -<sense>   <entry>    <form type="lemma">     <orth>لأَرِكَة</orth> ج أَرِيْك و        أَرائك</form>: <sense>سرير مزيَّن فاخر</sense>   </entry>Note: a luxurious decorated bed </sense> </entry>

12. Annex B: additional examples (could be referenced in the main text)

12.1. Implicit grammatical information (morpheme or particle)

cf. TEI List
<orth>Ἀαρών, ὁ</orth>
(Jonathan Robie)

Piotr suggested:

<form type="lemma">  <orth>Ἀαρών</orth> </form> <pc>,</pc> <gramGrp>  <gram type="pos"></gram> </gramGrp>

Issues: @norm/@value (@ana? overkill)

Suggested in http://jtei.revues.org/540:

<form type="lemma">  <gramGrp>   <gen norm="feminine">die</gen>  </gramGrp>  <orth>Katze</orth> </form>

13. Specification

13.1. Elements

13.1.1. <TEI>

<TEI> (TEI document) contains a single TEI-conformant document, combining a single TEI header with one or more members of the model.resourceLike class. Multiple <TEI> elements may be combined to form a <teiCorpus> element. [4. Default Text Structure 15.1. Varieties of Composite Text]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
versionspecifies the version number of the TEI Guidelines against which this document is valid.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.version
Note

Major editions of the Guidelines have long been informally referred to by a name made up of the letter P (for Proposal) followed by a digit. The current release is one of the many releases of the fifth major edition of the Guidelines, known as P5. This attribute may be used to associate a TEI document with a specific release of the P5 Guidelines, in the absence of a more precise association provided by the source attribute on the associated <schemaSpec>.

Contained by
May contain
header: teiHeader
textstructure: text
Note

This element is required. It is customary to specify the TEI namespace http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0 on it, using the xmlns attribute.

Example
<TEI version="3.3.0" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>The shortest TEI Document Imaginable</title>    </titleStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <p>First published as part of TEI P2, this is the P5          version using a name space.</p>    </publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>No source: this is an original work.</p>    </sourceDesc>   </fileDesc>  </teiHeader>  <text>   <body>    <p>This is about the shortest TEI document imaginable.</p>   </body>  </text> </TEI>
Example
<TEI version="2.9.1" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>A TEI Document containing four page images </title>    </titleStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <p>Unpublished demonstration file.</p>    </publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>No source: this is an original work.</p>    </sourceDesc>   </fileDesc>  </teiHeader>  <facsimile>   <graphic url="page1.png"/>   <graphic url="page2.png"/>   <graphic url="page3.png"/>   <graphic url="page4.png"/>  </facsimile> </TEI>
Schematron
<s:ns prefix="tei"  uri="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0"/> <s:ns prefix="xs"  uri="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"/>
Schematron
<s:ns prefix="rng"  uri="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"/>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <elementRef key="teiHeader"/>
  <classRef key="model.resourceLike"
   minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element TEI
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   attribute version { text }?,
   ( teiHeader, model.resourceLike+ )
}

13.1.2. <analytic>

<analytic> (analytic level) contains bibliographic elements describing an item (e.g. an article or poem) published within a monograph or journal and not as an independent publication. [3.11.2.1. Analytic, Monographic, and Series Levels]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
May contain
Note

May contain titles and statements of responsibility (author, editor, or other), in any order.

The <analytic> element may only occur within a <biblStruct>, where its use is mandatory for the description of an analytic level bibliographic item.

Example
<biblStruct>  <analytic>   <author>Chesnutt, David</author>   <title>Historical Editions in the States</title>  </analytic>  <monogr>   <title level="j">Computers and the Humanities</title>   <imprint>    <date when="1991-12">(December, 1991):</date>   </imprint>   <biblScope>25.6</biblScope>   <biblScope>377–380</biblScope>  </monogr> </biblStruct>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <elementRef key="author"/>
  <elementRef key="editor"/>
  <elementRef key="respStmt"/>
  <elementRef key="title"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
  <elementRef key="date"/>
  <elementRef key="textLang"/>
  <elementRef key="idno"/>
  <elementRef key="availability"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element analytic
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      authoreditorrespStmttitlemodel.ptrLikedate
    | textLang
    | idnoavailability
   )*
}

13.1.3. <appInfo>

<appInfo> (application information) records information about an application which has edited the TEI file. [2.3.10. The Application Information Element]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
header: encodingDesc
May containEmpty element
Example
<appInfo>  <application version="1.24ident="Xaira">   <label>XAIRA Indexer</label>   <ptr target="#P1"/>  </application> </appInfo>
Content model
<content>
 <classRef key="model.applicationLike"
  minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element appInfo { att.global.attributes, model.applicationLike+ }

13.1.4. <author>

<author> in a bibliographic reference, contains the name(s) of an author, personal or corporate, of a work; for example in the same form as that provided by a recognized bibliographic name authority. [3.11.2.2. Titles, Authors, and Editors 2.2.1. The Title Statement]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

Particularly where cataloguing is likely to be based on the content of the header, it is advisable to use a generally recognized name authority file to supply the content for this element. The attributes key or ref may also be used to reference canonical information about the author(s) intended from any appropriate authority, such as a library catalogue or online resource.

In the case of a broadcast, use this element for the name of the company or network responsible for making the broadcast.

Where an author is unknown or unspecified, this element may contain text such as Unknown or Anonymous. When the appropriate TEI modules are in use, it may also contain detailed tagging of the names used for people, organizations or places, in particular where multiple names are given.

Example
<author>British Broadcasting Corporation</author> <author>La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de (1634–1693)</author> <author>Anonymous</author> <author>Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation</author> <author>  <persName>Beaumont, Francis</persName> and <persName>John Fletcher</persName> </author> <author>  <orgName key="BBC">British Broadcasting    Corporation</orgName>: Radio 3 Network </author>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element author
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.5. <authority>

<authority> (release authority) supplies the name of a person or other agency responsible for making a work available, other than a publisher or distributor. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
dictionaries: lang lbl
figures: figure
header: idno
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<authority>John Smith</authority>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq.limited"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element authority
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq.limited
}

13.1.6. <availability>

<availability> supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, any licence applying to it, etc. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default)
statussupplies a code identifying the current availability of the text.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
free
the text is freely available.
unknown
the status of the text is unknown.
restricted
the text is not freely available.
Member of
Contained by
May contain
core: p
header: licence
Note

A consistent format should be adopted

Example
<availability status="restricted">  <p>Available for academic research purposes only.</p> </availability> <availability status="free">  <p>In the public domain</p> </availability> <availability status="restricted">  <p>Available under licence from the publishers.</p> </availability>
Example
<availability>  <licence target="http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT">   <p>The MIT License      applies to this document.</p>   <p>Copyright (C) 2011 by The University of Victoria</p>   <p>Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy      of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal      in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights      to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell      copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is      furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:</p>   <p>The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in      all copies or substantial portions of the Software.</p>   <p>THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR      IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,      FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE      AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER      LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,      OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN      THE SOFTWARE.</p>  </licence> </availability>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.availabilityPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element availability
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   attribute status { "free" | "unknown" | "restricted" }?,
   ( model.availabilityPart | model.pLike )+
}

13.1.7. <back>

<back> (back matter) contains any appendixes, etc. following the main part of a text. [4.7. Back Matter 4. Default Text Structure]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
textstructure: text
May contain
figures: figure
textstructure: div
transcr: metamark
Note

Because cultural conventions differ as to which elements are grouped as back matter and which as front matter, the content models for the <back> and <front> elements are identical.

Example
<back>  <div type="appendix">   <head>The Golden Dream or, the Ingenuous Confession</head>   <p>TO shew the Depravity of human Nature, and how apt the Mind is to be misled by Trinkets      and false Appearances, Mrs. Two-Shoes does acknowledge, that after she became rich, she      had like to have been, too fond of Money <!-- .... -->   </p>  </div> <!-- ... -->  <div type="epistle">   <head>A letter from the Printer, which he desires may be inserted</head>   <salute>Sir.</salute>   <p>I have done with your Copy, so you may return it to the Vatican, if you please;    <!-- ... -->   </p>  </div>  <div type="advert">   <head>The Books usually read by the Scholars of Mrs Two-Shoes are these and are sold at Mr      Newbery's at the Bible and Sun in St Paul's Church-yard.</head>   <list>    <item n="1">The Christmas Box, Price 1d.</item>    <item n="2">The History of Giles Gingerbread, 1d.</item> <!-- ... -->    <item n="42">A Curious Collection of Travels, selected from the Writers of all Nations,        10 Vol, Pr. bound 1l.</item>   </list>  </div>  <div type="advert">   <head>By the KING's Royal Patent, Are sold by J. NEWBERY, at the Bible and Sun in St.      Paul's Church-Yard.</head>   <list>    <item n="1">Dr. James's Powders for Fevers, the Small-Pox, Measles, Colds, &amp;c. 2s.        6d</item>    <item n="2">Dr. Hooper's Female Pills, 1s.</item> <!-- ... -->   </list>  </div> </back>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike.front"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.listLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
  </alternate>
  <alternate minOccurs="0">
   <sequence>
    <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
     <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
   <sequence>
    <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
     <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <classRef key="model.divBottomPart"/>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.divBottomPart"/>
    <classRef key="model.global"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element back
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      (
         model.frontPartmodel.pLike.frontmodel.pLike
       | model.listLike
       | model.global
      )*,
      (
         (
            model.div1Like,
            ( model.frontPart | model.div1Like | model.global )*
         )
       | ( model.divLike, ( model.frontPart | model.divLike | model.global )* )
      )?,
      ( model.divBottomPart, ( model.divBottomPart | model.global )* )?
   )
}

13.1.8. <bibl>

<bibl> (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged. [3.11.1. Methods of Encoding Bibliographic References and Lists of References 2.2.7. The Source Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.docStatus (@status)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl
figures: figure
gaiji: g
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

Contains phrase-level elements, together with any combination of elements from the model.biblPart class

Example
<bibl>Blain, Clements and Grundy: Feminist Companion to Literature in English (Yale, 1990)</bibl>
Example
<bibl>  <title level="a">The Interesting story of the Children in the Wood</title>. In <author>Victor E Neuberg</author>, <title>The Penny Histories</title>. <publisher>OUP</publisher>  <date>1968</date>. </bibl>
Example
<bibl type="articlesubtype="book_chapter"  xml:id="carlin_2003">  <author>   <name>    <surname>Carlin</surname>      (<forename>Claire</forename>)</name>  </author>, <title level="a">The Staging of Impotence : France’s last    congrès</title> dans <bibl type="monogr">   <title level="m">Theatrum mundi : studies in honor of Ronald W.      Tobin</title>, éd.  <editor>    <name>     <forename>Claire</forename>     <surname>Carlin</surname>    </name>   </editor> et  <editor>    <name>     <forename>Kathleen</forename>     <surname>Wine</surname>    </name>   </editor>,  <pubPlace>Charlottesville, Va.</pubPlace>,  <publisher>Rookwood Press</publisher>,  <date when="2003">2003</date>.  </bibl> </bibl>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.highlighted"/>
  <classRef key="model.pPart.data"/>
  <classRef key="model.pPart.edit"/>
  <classRef key="model.segLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.biblPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element bibl
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   att.docStatus.attributes,
   (
      text
    | model.gLikemodel.highlightedmodel.pPart.datamodel.pPart.editmodel.segLikemodel.ptrLikemodel.biblPartmodel.global
   )*
}

13.1.9. <biblScope>

<biblScope> (scope of bibliographic reference) defines the scope of a bibliographic reference, for example as a list of page numbers, or a named subdivision of a larger work. [3.11.2.5. Scopes and Ranges in Bibliographic Citations]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.citing (@unit, @from, @to)
Member of
Contained by
header: seriesStmt
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

When a single page is being cited, use the from and to attributes with an identical value. When no clear endpoint is provided, the from attribute may be used without to; for example a citation such as ‘p. 3ff’ might be encoded <biblScope from="3">p. 3ff<biblScope>.

It is now considered good practice to supply this element as a sibling (rather than a child) of <imprint>, since it supplies information which does not constitute part of the imprint.

Example
<biblScope>pp 12–34</biblScope> <biblScope unit="pagefrom="12to="34"/> <biblScope unit="volume">II</biblScope> <biblScope unit="page">12</biblScope>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element biblScope
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.citing.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.10. <biblStruct>

<biblStruct> (structured bibliographic citation) contains a structured bibliographic citation, in which only bibliographic sub-elements appear and in a specified order. [3.11.1. Methods of Encoding Bibliographic References and Lists of References 2.2.7. The Source Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.docStatus (@status)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<biblStruct>  <monogr>   <author>Blain, Virginia</author>   <author>Clements, Patricia</author>   <author>Grundy, Isobel</author>   <title>The Feminist Companion to Literature in English: women writers from the middle ages      to the present</title>   <edition>first edition</edition>   <imprint>    <publisher>Yale University Press</publisher>    <pubPlace>New Haven and London</pubPlace>    <date>1990</date>   </imprint>  </monogr> </biblStruct>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <elementRef key="analytic" minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <sequence minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <elementRef key="monogr"/>
   <elementRef key="series" minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.noteLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
   <elementRef key="relatedItem"/>
   <elementRef key="citedRange"/>
  </alternate>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element biblStruct
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   att.docStatus.attributes,
   (
      analytic*,
      ( monogr, series* )+,
      ( model.noteLike | model.ptrLike | relatedItem | citedRange )*
   )
}

13.1.11. <body>

<body> (text body) contains the whole body of a single unitary text, excluding any front or back matter. [4. Default Text Structure]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
textstructure: text
May contain
dictionaries: entry
figures: figure
textstructure: div
transcr: metamark
Example
<body>  <l>Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard</l>  <l>metudæs maecti end his modgidanc</l>  <l>uerc uuldurfadur sue he uundra gihuaes</l>  <l>eci dryctin or astelidæ</l>  <l>he aerist scop aelda barnum</l>  <l>heben til hrofe haleg scepen.</l>  <l>tha middungeard moncynnæs uard</l>  <l>eci dryctin æfter tiadæ</l>  <l>firum foldu frea allmectig</l>  <trailer>primo cantauit Cædmon istud carmen.</trailer> </body>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <classRef key="model.global"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.global"/>
    <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.global"/>
    <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
  <alternate>
   <sequence minOccurs="1"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
     <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
   <sequence minOccurs="1"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
     <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
   <sequence>
    <sequence minOccurs="1"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.common"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"
      minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    </sequence>
    <alternate minOccurs="0">
     <sequence minOccurs="1"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
      <alternate minOccurs="0"
       maxOccurs="unbounded">
       <classRef key="model.global"/>
       <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
      </alternate>
     </sequence>
     <sequence minOccurs="1"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
      <alternate minOccurs="0"
       maxOccurs="unbounded">
       <classRef key="model.global"/>
       <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
      </alternate>
     </sequence>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element body
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      model.global*,
      ( model.divTop, ( model.global | model.divTop )* )?,
      ( model.divGenLike, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )?,
      (
         ( model.divLike, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
       | ( model.div1Like, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
       | (
            ( model.common, model.global* )+,
            (
               ( model.divLike, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
             | ( model.div1Like, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
            )?
         )
      ),
      ( model.divBottom, model.global* )*
   )
}

13.1.12. <c>

<c> (character) represents a character. [17.1. Linguistic Segment Categories]
Moduleanalysis
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.segLike (@function) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) (att.fragmentable (@part)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.notated (@notation)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
gaiji: g
character data
Note

Contains a single character, a <g> element, or a sequence of graphemes to be treated as a single character. The type attribute is used to indicate the function of this segmentation, taking values such as letter, punctuation, or digit etc.

Example
<phr>  <c>M</c>  <c>O</c>  <c>A</c>  <c>I</c>  <w>doth</w>  <w>sway</w>  <w>my</w>  <w>life</w> </phr>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.xtext"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element c
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.segLike.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.notated.attributes,
   macro.xtext
}

13.1.13. <case>

<case> contains grammatical case information given by a dictionary for a given form. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
Member of
Contained by
dictionaries: dictScrap form gramGrp
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

May contain character data and phrase-level elements. Typical values will be of the form nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, etc.

This element is synonymous with <gram type="case">.

ExampleTaken from Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache. Veranstaltet und herausgegeben von Joachim Heinrich Campe. Erster Theil. A - bis - E. (Braunschweig 1807. In der Schulbuchhandlung):
Das Evangelium, des Evangelii, ...
<entry>  <form type="lemma">   <gramGrp>    <pos value="noun"/>    <gen value="n"/>   </gramGrp>   <form type="determiner">    <orth>Das</orth>   </form>   <form type="headword">    <orth>Evangelium</orth>,</form>  </form>  <form type="inflected">   <gramGrp>    <case value="genitive"/>    <number value="singular"/>   </gramGrp>   <form type="determiner">    <orth>des</orth>   </form>   <form type="headword">    <orth>     <oRef>Evangelii</oRef>,</orth>   </form>  </form> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element case
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.14. <char>

<char> (character) provides descriptive information about a character. [5.2. Markup Constructs for Representation of Characters and Glyphs]
Modulegaiji
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
gaiji: charDecl
May contain
Example
<char xml:id="circledU4EBA">  <charName>CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH 4EBA</charName>  <charProp>   <unicodeName>character-decomposition-mapping</unicodeName>   <value>circle</value>  </charProp>  <charProp>   <localName>daikanwa</localName>   <value>36</value>  </charProp>  <mapping type="standard"></mapping> </char>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <elementRef key="charName" minOccurs="0"/>
  <classRef key="model.descLike"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <elementRef key="charProp" minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <elementRef key="mapping" minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <elementRef key="figure" minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <classRef key="model.graphicLike"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <classRef key="model.noteLike"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element char
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      charName?,
      model.descLike*,
      charProp*,
      mapping*,
      figure*,
      model.graphicLike*,
      model.noteLike*
   )
}

13.1.15. <charDecl>

<charDecl> (character declarations) provides information about nonstandard characters and glyphs. [5.2. Markup Constructs for Representation of Characters and Glyphs]
Modulegaiji
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
header: encodingDesc
May contain
gaiji: char glyph
Example
<charDecl>  <char xml:id="aENL">   <charName>LATIN LETTER ENLARGED SMALL A</charName>   <mapping type="standard">a</mapping>  </char> </charDecl>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <elementRef key="desc" minOccurs="0"/>
  <alternate minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <elementRef key="char"/>
   <elementRef key="glyph"/>
  </alternate>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element charDecl { att.global.attributes, ( desc?, ( char | glyph )+ ) }

13.1.16. <charName>

<charName> (character name) contains the name of a character, expressed following Unicode conventions. [5.2. Markup Constructs for Representation of Characters and Glyphs]
Modulegaiji
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
gaiji: char
May containCharacter data only
Note

The name must follow Unicode conventions for character naming. Projects working in similar fields are recommended to coordinate and publish their list of <charName>s to facilitate data exchange.

Example
<charName>CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH 4EBA</charName>
Content model
<content>
 <textNode/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element charName { att.global.attributes, text }

13.1.17. <charProp>

<charProp> (character property) provides a name and value for some property of the parent character or glyph. [5.2. Markup Constructs for Representation of Characters and Glyphs]
Modulegaiji
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Contained by
gaiji: char glyph
May contain
Note

If the property is a Unicode Normative Property, then its <unicodeName> must be supplied. Otherwise, its name must be specied by means of a <localName>.

At a later release, additional constraints will be defined on possible value/name combinations using Schematron rules

Example
<charProp>  <unicodeName>character-decomposition-mapping</unicodeName>  <value>circle</value> </charProp> <charProp>  <localName>daikanwa</localName>  <value>36</value> </charProp>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate>
   <elementRef key="unicodeName"/>
   <elementRef key="localName"/>
  </alternate>
  <elementRef key="value"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element charProp
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   ( ( unicodeName | localName ), value )
}

13.1.18. <cit>

<cit> (cited quotation) contains a quotation from some other document, together with a bibliographic reference to its source. In a dictionary it may contain an example text with at least one occurrence of the word form, used in the sense being described, or a translation of the headword, or an example. [3.3.3. Quotation 4.3.1. Grouped Texts 9.3.5.1. Examples]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (type, @subtype)
type
StatusRequired
Legal values are:
example
translation
translationEquivalent
etymon
cognate
cognateSet
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<cit>  <quote>and the breath of the whale is frequently attended with such an insupportable smell,    as to bring on disorder of the brain.</quote>  <bibl>Ulloa's South America</bibl> </cit>
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>horrifier</orth>  </form>  <cit type="translationxml:lang="en">   <quote>to horrify</quote>  </cit>  <cit type="example">   <quote>elle était horrifiée par la dépense</quote>   <cit type="translationxml:lang="en">    <quote>she was horrified at the expense.</quote>   </cit>  </cit> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.qLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.egLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.biblLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
  <classRef key="model.entryPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.segLike"/>
  <elementRef key="lang"/>
  <elementRef key="gloss"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element cit
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attribute.subtype,
   attribute type
   {
      "example"
    | "translation"
    | "translationEquivalent"
    | "etymon"
    | "cognate"
    | "cognateSet"
   },
   (
      model.qLike
    | model.egLike
    | model.biblLikemodel.ptrLikemodel.globalmodel.entryPartmodel.segLikelanggloss
   )+
}

13.1.19. <citedRange>

<citedRange> (cited range) defines the range of cited content, often represented by pages or other units [3.11.2.5. Scopes and Ranges in Bibliographic Citations]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.pointing (@targetLang, @target, @evaluate) att.citing (@unit, @from, @to)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

When a single page is being cited, use the from and to attributes with an identical value. When no clear endpoint is provided, the from attribute may be used without to; for example a citation such as ‘p. 3ff’ might be encoded <biblScope from="3">p. 3ff<biblScope>.

Example
<citedRange>pp 12–13</citedRange> <citedRange unit="pagefrom="12to="13"/> <citedRange unit="volume">II</citedRange> <citedRange unit="page">12</citedRange>
Example
<bibl>  <ptr target="#mueller01"/>, <citedRange target="http://example.com/mueller3.xml#page4">vol. 3, pp.    4-5</citedRange> </bibl>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element citedRange
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.pointing.attributes,
   att.citing.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.20. <classDecl>

<classDecl> (classification declarations) contains one or more taxonomies defining any classificatory codes used elsewhere in the text. [2.3.7. The Classification Declaration 2.3. The Encoding Description]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
header: encodingDesc
May containEmpty element
Example
<classDecl>  <taxonomy xml:id="LCSH">   <bibl>Library of Congress Subject Headings</bibl>  </taxonomy> </classDecl> <!-- ... --> <textClass>  <keywords scheme="#LCSH">   <term>Political science</term>   <term>United States -- Politics and government —      Revolution, 1775-1783</term>  </keywords> </textClass>
Content model
<content>
 <elementRef key="taxonomy" minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element classDecl { att.global.attributes, taxonomy+ }

13.1.21. <colloc>

<colloc> (collocate) contains any sequence of words that co-occur with the headword with significant frequency. [9.3.2. Grammatical Information]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
core: cit
dictionaries: dictScrap form gramGrp
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>médire</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <colloc>de</colloc>  </gramGrp> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element colloc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.22. <date>

<date> contains a date in any format. [3.5.4. Dates and Times 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 2.6. The Revision Description 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information 15.2.3. The Setting Description 13.3.7. Dates and Times]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence, @instant) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<date when="1980-02">early February 1980</date>
Example
Given on the <date when="1977-06-12">Twelfth Day of June in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy-seven of the Republic the Two Hundredth and first and of the University the Eighty-Sixth.</date>
Example
<date when="1990-09">September 1990</date>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element date
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   att.dimensions.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   ( text | model.gLike | model.phrase | model.global )*
}

13.1.23. <def>

<def> (definition) contains definition text in a dictionary entry. [9.3.3.1. Definitions]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
Member of
Contained by
core: cit
dictionaries: dictScrap etym sense
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>competitor</orth>   <hyph>com|peti|tor</hyph>   <pron>k@m"petit@(r)</pron>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <pos>n</pos>  </gramGrp>  <def>person who competes.</def> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element def
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.24. <dictScrap>

<dictScrap> (dictionary scrap) encloses a part of a dictionary entry in which other phrase-level dictionary elements are freely combined. [9.1. Dictionary Body and Overall Structure 9.2. The Structure of Dictionary Entries]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
dictionaries: entry
May contain
Note

May contain any dictionary elements in any combination.

This element is used to mark part of a dictionary entry in which lower level dictionary elements appear, but which does not itself form an identifiable structural unit.

Example
<entry>  <dictScrap>   <orth>biryani</orth> or <orth>biriani</orth>   <pron>(%bIrI"A:nI)</pron>   <def>any of a variety of Indian dishes ...</def>   <etym>[from <lang>Urdu</lang>]</etym>  </dictScrap> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.entryPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.morphLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.inter"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element dictScrap
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      text
    | model.gLikemodel.entryPartmodel.morphLikemodel.phrasemodel.intermodel.global
   )*
}

13.1.25. <distributor>

<distributor> supplies the name of a person or other agency responsible for the distribution of a text. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<distributor>Oxford Text Archive</distributor> <distributor>Redwood and Burn Ltd</distributor>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element distributor
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.26. <div>

<div> (text division) contains a subdivision of the front, body, or back of a text. [4.1. Divisions of the Body]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
textstructure: back body div front
May contain
dictionaries: entry
figures: figure
textstructure: div
transcr: metamark
Example
<body>  <div type="part">   <head>Fallacies of Authority</head>   <p>The subject of which is Authority in various shapes, and the object, to repress all      exercise of the reasoning faculty.</p>   <div n="1type="chapter">    <head>The Nature of Authority</head>    <p>With reference to any proposed measures having for their object the greatest        happiness of the greatest number [...]</p>    <div n="1.1type="section">     <head>Analysis of Authority</head>     <p>What on any given occasion is the legitimate weight or influence to be attached to          authority [...] </p>    </div>    <div n="1.2type="section">     <head>Appeal to Authority, in What Cases Fallacious.</head>     <p>Reference to authority is open to the charge of fallacy when [...] </p>    </div>   </div>  </div> </body>
Schematron
<s:report test="ancestor::tei:l"> Abstract model violation: Lines may not contain higher-level structural elements such as div. </s:report>
Schematron
<s:report test="ancestor::tei:p or ancestor::tei:ab and not(ancestor::tei:floatingText)"> Abstract model violation: p and ab may not contain higher-level structural elements such as div. </s:report>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <alternate>
    <sequence minOccurs="1"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <alternate>
      <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
      <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
     </alternate>
     <classRef key="model.global"
      minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    </sequence>
    <sequence>
     <sequence minOccurs="1"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <classRef key="model.common"/>
      <classRef key="model.global"
       minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
     </sequence>
     <sequence minOccurs="0"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <alternate>
       <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
       <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
      </alternate>
      <classRef key="model.global"
       minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
     </sequence>
    </sequence>
   </alternate>
   <sequence minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
    <classRef key="model.global"
     minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
   </sequence>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element div
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.written.attributes,
   (
      ( model.divTop | model.global )*,
      (
         (
            ( ( model.divLike | model.divGenLike ), model.global* )+
          | (
               ( model.common, model.global* )+,
               ( ( model.divLike | model.divGenLike ), model.global* )*
            )
         ),
         ( model.divBottom, model.global* )*
      )?
   )
}

13.1.27. <edition>

<edition> describes the particularities of one edition of a text. [2.2.2. The Edition Statement]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: bibl
header: editionStmt
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<edition>First edition <date>Oct 1990</date> </edition> <edition n="S2">Students' edition</edition>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element edition { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }

13.1.28. <editionStmt>

<editionStmt> (edition statement) groups information relating to one edition of a text. [2.2.2. The Edition Statement 2.2. The File Description]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
header: fileDesc
May contain
Example
<editionStmt>  <edition n="S2">Students' edition</edition>  <respStmt>   <resp>Adapted by </resp>   <name>Elizabeth Kirk</name>  </respStmt> </editionStmt>
Example
<editionStmt>  <p>First edition, <date>Michaelmas Term, 1991.</date>  </p> </editionStmt>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate>
  <classRef key="model.pLike" minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <sequence>
   <elementRef key="edition"/>
   <classRef key="model.respLike"
    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element editionStmt
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( model.pLike+ | ( edition, model.respLike* ) )
}

13.1.29. <editor>

<editor> contains a secondary statement of responsibility for a bibliographic item, for example the name of an individual, institution or organization, (or of several such) acting as editor, compiler, translator, etc. [3.11.2.2. Titles, Authors, and Editors]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

A consistent format should be adopted.

Particularly where cataloguing is likely to be based on the content of the header, it is advisable to use generally recognized authority lists for the exact form of personal names.

Example
<editor role="Technical_Editor">Ron Van den Branden</editor> <editor role="Editor-in-Chief">John Walsh</editor> <editor role="Managing_Editor">Anne Baillot</editor>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element editor
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.30. <encodingDesc>

<encodingDesc> (encoding description) documents the relationship between an electronic text and the source or sources from which it was derived. [2.3. The Encoding Description 2.1.1. The TEI Header and Its Components]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
header: teiHeader
May contain
Example
<encodingDesc>  <p>Basic encoding, capturing lexical information only. All    hyphenation, punctuation, and variant spellings normalized. No    formatting or layout information preserved.</p> </encodingDesc>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.encodingDescPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element encodingDesc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( model.encodingDescPart | model.pLike )+
}

13.1.31. <entry>

<entry> contains a single structured entry in any kind of lexical resource, such as a dictionary or lexicon. [9.1. Dictionary Body and Overall Structure 9.2. The Structure of Dictionary Entries]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.sortable (@sortKey) att.global (xml:id, xml:lang, @n) att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select) att.global.analytic (@ana) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
xml:id(identifier) provides a unique identifier for the element bearing the attribute.
Derived fromatt.global
StatusRequired
DatatypeID
xml:lang(language) indicates the language of the element content using a ‘tag’ generated according to BCP 47.
Derived fromatt.global
StatusRequired
Datatypeteidata.language
type
StatusRequired
Suggested values include:
mainEntry
[Default]
wordFamily
homonymicEntry
relatedEntry
Member of
Contained by
dictionaries: entry sense
figures: figure
textstructure: body div
May contain
analysis: pc
figures: figure
transcr: metamark
Note

Like all elements, <entry> inherits an xml:id attribute from the class global. No restrictions are placed on the method used to construct xml:ids; one convenient method is to use the orthographic form of the headword, appending a disambiguating number where necessary. Identification codes are sometimes included on machine-readable tapes of dictionaries for in-house use.

It is recommended to use the <sense> element even for an entry that has only one sense to group together all parts of the definition relating to the word sense since this leads to more consistent encoding across entries.

Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>disproof</orth>   <pron>dIs"pru:f</pron>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <pos>n</pos>  </gramGrp>  <sense n="1">   <def>facts that disprove something.</def>  </sense>  <sense n="2">   <def>the act of disproving.</def>  </sense> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <elementRef key="sense"/>
  <elementRef key="pc"/>
  <classRef key="model.entryPart.top"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element entry
{
   att.global.attribute.n,
   att.global.rendition.attribute.rend,
   att.global.rendition.attribute.style,
   att.global.rendition.attribute.rendition,
   att.global.linking.attribute.corresp,
   att.global.linking.attribute.synch,
   att.global.linking.attribute.sameAs,
   att.global.linking.attribute.copyOf,
   att.global.linking.attribute.next,
   att.global.linking.attribute.prev,
   att.global.linking.attribute.exclude,
   att.global.linking.attribute.select,
   att.global.analytic.attribute.ana,
   att.global.facs.attribute.facs,
   att.global.change.attribute.change,
   att.global.responsibility.attribute.cert,
   att.global.responsibility.attribute.resp,
   att.global.source.attribute.source,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   attribute xml:id { text },
   attribute xml:lang { text },
   attribute type
   {
      "mainEntry" | "wordFamily" | "homonymicEntry" | "relatedEntry" | xsd:Name
   },
   ( sense | pc | model.entryPart.top | model.global | model.ptrLike )+
}

13.1.32. <etym>

<etym> (etymology) encloses the etymological information in a dictionary entry. [9.3.4. Etymological Information]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) att.typed (type, @subtype)
type
StatusRecommended
Legal values are:
borrowing
inheritance
metaphor
metonymy
compounding
grammaticalization
derivation
Member of
Contained by
core: cit
dictionaries: dictScrap entry etym sense
May contain
analysis: c pc
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

May contain character data mixed with any other elements defined in the dictionary tag set.

There is no consensus on the internal structure of etymologies, or even on whether such a structure is appropriate. The <etym> element accordingly simply contains prose, within which names of languages, cited words, or parts of words, glosses, and examples will typically be prominent. The tagging of such internal objects is optional.

Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>publish</orth> ... </form>  <etym>   <lang>ME.</lang>   <mentioned>publisshen</mentioned>,  <lang>F.</lang>   <mentioned>publier</mentioned>, <lang>L.</lang>   <mentioned>publicare,      publicatum</mentioned>. <xr>See <ref>public</ref>; cf. 2d <ref>-ish</ref>.</xr>  </etym> </entry> (From: Webster's Second International)
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>Handschuh</orth> ... </form>  <etym type="compounding">   <oRef>Hand</oRef> (<pRef notation="ipa">ˈhant</pRef>): <gloss>hand</gloss>,  <etym type="metaphor">    <oRef>Schuh</oRef> (<pRef notation="ipa">ʃuː</pRef>): <gloss>shoe</gloss>   </etym>  </etym> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
  <classRef key="model.inter"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.descLike"/>
  <elementRef key="def"/>
  <elementRef key="etym"/>
  <elementRef key="gramGrp"/>
  <elementRef key="lbl"/>
  <elementRef key="usg"/>
  <elementRef key="xr"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element etym
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attribute.subtype,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   attribute type
   {
      "borrowing"
    | "inheritance"
    | "metaphor"
    | "metonymy"
    | "compounding"
    | "grammaticalization"
    | "derivation"
   }?,
   (
      text
    | model.gLikemodel.globalmodel.intermodel.phrase
    | model.descLike
    | defetymgramGrplblusgxr
   )*
}

13.1.33. <extent>

<extent> describes the approximate size of a text stored on some carrier medium or of some other object, digital or non-digital, specified in any convenient units. [2.2.3. Type and Extent of File 2.2. The File Description 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information 10.7.1. Object Description]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: bibl
header: fileDesc
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<extent>3200 sentences</extent> <extent>between 10 and 20 Mb</extent> <extent>ten 3.5 inch high density diskettes</extent>
ExampleThe <measure> element may be used to supply normalised or machine tractable versions of the size or sizes concerned.
<extent>  <measure unit="MiBquantity="4.2">About four megabytes</measure>  <measure unit="pagesquantity="245">245 pages of source    material</measure> </extent>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element extent { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }

13.1.34. <figDesc>

<figDesc> (description of figure) contains a brief prose description of the appearance or content of a graphic figure, for use when documenting an image without displaying it. [14.4. Specific Elements for Graphic Images]
Modulefigures
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
figures: figure
May contain
dictionaries: lang lbl
header: idno
namesdates: placeName
character data
Note

This element is intended for use as an alternative to the content of its parent <figure> element ; for example, to display when the image is required but the equipment in use cannot display graphic images. It may also be used for indexing or documentary purposes.

Example
<figure>  <graphic url="emblem1.png"/>  <head>Emblemi d'Amore</head>  <figDesc>A pair of naked winged cupids, each holding a    flaming torch, in a rural setting.</figDesc> </figure>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.limitedContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element figDesc { att.global.attributes, macro.limitedContent }

13.1.35. <figure>

<figure> groups elements representing or containing graphic information such as an illustration, formula, or figure. [14.4. Specific Elements for Graphic Images]
Modulefigures
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.placement (@place) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<figure>  <head>The View from the Bridge</head>  <figDesc>A Whistleresque view showing four or five sailing boats in the foreground, and a    series of buoys strung out between them.</figDesc>  <graphic url="http://www.example.org/fig1.png"   scale="0.5"/> </figure>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.headLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.common"/>
  <elementRef key="figDesc"/>
  <classRef key="model.graphicLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
  <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element figure
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.written.attributes,
   (
      model.headLikemodel.commonfigDescmodel.graphicLikemodel.globalmodel.divBottom
   )*
}

13.1.36. <fileDesc>

<fileDesc> (file description) contains a full bibliographic description of an electronic file. [2.2. The File Description 2.1.1. The TEI Header and Its Components]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
header: teiHeader
May contain
Note

The major source of information for those seeking to create a catalogue entry or bibliographic citation for an electronic file. As such, it provides a title and statements of responsibility together with details of the publication or distribution of the file, of any series to which it belongs, and detailed bibliographic notes for matters not addressed elsewhere in the header. It also contains a full bibliographic description for the source or sources from which the electronic text was derived.

Example
<fileDesc>  <titleStmt>   <title>The shortest possible TEI document</title>  </titleStmt>  <publicationStmt>   <p>Distributed as part of TEI P5</p>  </publicationStmt>  <sourceDesc>   <p>No print source exists: this is an original digital text</p>  </sourceDesc> </fileDesc>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <sequence>
   <elementRef key="titleStmt"/>
   <elementRef key="editionStmt"
    minOccurs="0"/>
   <elementRef key="extent" minOccurs="0"/>
   <elementRef key="publicationStmt"/>
   <elementRef key="seriesStmt"
    minOccurs="0"/>
   <elementRef key="notesStmt"
    minOccurs="0"/>
  </sequence>
  <elementRef key="sourceDesc"
   minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element fileDesc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      (
         titleStmt,
         editionStmt?,
         extent?,
         publicationStmt,
         seriesStmt?,
         notesStmt?
      ),
      sourceDesc+
   )
}

13.1.37. <form>

<form> (form information group) groups all the information on the written and spoken forms of one headword. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) att.typed (type, @subtype)
typeclassifies form as simple, compound, etc.
Derived fromatt.typed
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
simple
single free lexical item
lemma
the headword itself
variant
a variant form
compound
word formed from simple lexical items
derivative
word derived from headword
inflected
word in other than usual dictionary form
phrase
multiple-word lexical item
Member of
Contained by
core: cit
dictionaries: dictScrap entry form sense
May contain
analysis: c pc
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<form>  <orth>zaptié</orth>  <orth>zaptyé</orth> </form>
(from TLFi)
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.inter"/>
  <classRef key="model.formPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element form
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attribute.subtype,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   attribute type
   {
      "simple"
    | "lemma"
    | "variant"
    | "compound"
    | "derivative"
    | "inflected"
    | "phrase"
   }?,
   (
      text
    | model.gLikemodel.phrasemodel.intermodel.formPartmodel.global
   )*
}

13.1.38. <front>

<front> (front matter) contains any prefatory matter (headers, abstracts, title page, prefaces, dedications, etc.) found at the start of a document, before the main body. [4.6. Title Pages 4. Default Text Structure]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
textstructure: text
May contain
figures: figure
textstructure: div
transcr: metamark
Note

Because cultural conventions differ as to which elements are grouped as front matter and which as back matter, the content models for the <front> and <back> elements are identical.

Example
<front>  <epigraph>   <quote>Nam Sibyllam quidem Cumis ego ipse oculis meis vidi in ampulla      pendere, et cum illi pueri dicerent: <q xml:lang="gr">Σίβυλλα τί        θέλεις</q>; respondebat illa: <q xml:lang="gr">ὰποθανεῖν θέλω.</q>   </quote>  </epigraph>  <div type="dedication">   <p>For Ezra Pound <q xml:lang="it">il miglior fabbro.</q>   </p>  </div> </front>
Example
<front>  <div type="dedication">   <p>To our three selves</p>  </div>  <div type="preface">   <head>Author's Note</head>   <p>All the characters in this book are purely imaginary, and if the      author has used names that may suggest a reference to living persons      she has done so inadvertently. ...</p>  </div> </front>
Example
<front>  <div type="abstract">   <div>    <head> BACKGROUND:</head>    <p>Food insecurity can put children at greater risk of obesity because        of altered food choices and nonuniform consumption patterns.</p>   </div>   <div>    <head> OBJECTIVE:</head>    <p>We examined the association between obesity and both child-level        food insecurity and personal food insecurity in US children.</p>   </div>   <div>    <head> DESIGN:</head>    <p>Data from 9,701 participants in the National Health and Nutrition        Examination Survey, 2001-2010, aged 2 to 11 years were analyzed.        Child-level food insecurity was assessed with the US Department of        Agriculture's Food Security Survey Module based on eight        child-specific questions. Personal food insecurity was assessed with        five additional questions. Obesity was defined, using physical        measurements, as body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) greater than        or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the Centers        for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Logistic        regressions adjusted for sex, race/ethnic group, poverty level, and        survey year were conducted to describe associations between obesity        and food insecurity.</p>   </div>   <div>    <head> RESULTS:</head>    <p>Obesity was significantly associated with personal food insecurity        for children aged 6 to 11 years (odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI 1.33 to        2.48), but not in children aged 2 to 5 years (odds ratio=0.88; 95%        CI 0.51 to 1.51). Child-level food insecurity was not associated        with obesity among 2- to 5-year-olds or 6- to 11-year-olds.</p>   </div>   <div>    <head> CONCLUSIONS:</head>    <p>Personal food insecurity is associated with an increased risk of        obesity only in children aged 6 to 11 years. Personal        food-insecurity measures may give different results than aggregate        food-insecurity measures in children.</p>   </div>  </div> </front>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike.front"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <alternate>
    <sequence>
     <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
     <alternate minOccurs="0"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
      <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
      <classRef key="model.global"/>
     </alternate>
    </sequence>
    <sequence>
     <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
     <alternate minOccurs="0"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
      <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
      <classRef key="model.global"/>
     </alternate>
    </sequence>
   </alternate>
   <sequence minOccurs="0">
    <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element front
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      ( model.frontPart | model.pLike | model.pLike.front | model.global )*,
      (
         (
            (
               model.div1Like,
               ( model.div1Like | model.frontPart | model.global )*
            )
          | (
               model.divLike,
               ( model.divLike | model.frontPart | model.global )*
            )
         ),
         ( model.divBottom, ( model.divBottom | model.global )* )?
      )?
   )
}

13.1.39. <funder>

<funder> (funding body) specifies the name of an individual, institution, or organization responsible for the funding of a project or text. [2.2.1. The Title Statement]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
dictionaries: lang lbl
figures: figure
header: idno
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

Funders provide financial support for a project; they are distinct from sponsors (see element <sponsor>), who provide intellectual support and authority.

Example
<funder>The National Endowment for the Humanities, an independent federal agency</funder> <funder>Directorate General XIII of the Commission of the European Communities</funder> <funder>The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation</funder> <funder>The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada</funder>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq.limited"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element funder
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq.limited
}

13.1.40. <g>

<g> (character or glyph) represents a glyph, or a non-standard character. [5. Characters, Glyphs, and Writing Modes]
Modulegaiji
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
refpoints to a description of the character or glyph intended.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.pointer
Member of
Contained by
May containCharacter data only
Note

The name g is short for gaiji, which is the Japanese term for a non-standardized character or glyph.

Example
<g ref="#ctlig">ct</g>
This example points to a <glyph> element with the identifier ctlig like the following:
<glyph xml:id="ctlig"> <!-- here we describe the particular ct-ligature intended --> </glyph>
Example
<g ref="#per-glyph">per</g>
The medieval brevigraph per could similarly be considered as an individual glyph, defined in a <glyph> element with the identifier per-glyph as follows:
<glyph xml:id="per-glyph"> <!-- ... --> </glyph>
Content model
<content>
 <textNode/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element g
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   attribute ref { text }?,
   text
}

13.1.41. <gen>

<gen> (gender) identifies the morphological gender of a lexical item, as given in the dictionary. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
Member of
Contained by
dictionaries: dictScrap form gramGrp
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

May contain character data and phrase-level elements. Typical content will be masculine, feminine, neuter etc.

This element is synonymous with <gram type="gender">.

Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>pamplemousse</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <pos>noun</pos>   <gen>masculine</gen>  </gramGrp> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element gen
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.42. <gloss>

<gloss> identifies a phrase or word used to provide a gloss or definition for some other word or phrase. [3.3.4. Terms, Glosses, Equivalents, and Descriptions 22.4.1. Description of Components]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.translatable (@versionDate) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.pointing (@targetLang, @target, @evaluate) att.cReferencing (@cRef)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

The target and cRef attributes are mutually exclusive.

Example
We may define <term xml:id="tdpvrend="sc">discoursal point of view</term> as <gloss target="#tdpv">the relationship, expressed through discourse structure, between the implied author or some other addresser, and the fiction.</gloss>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element gloss
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.translatable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.pointing.attributes,
   att.cReferencing.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.43. <glyph>

<glyph> (character glyph) provides descriptive information about a character glyph. [5.2. Markup Constructs for Representation of Characters and Glyphs]
Modulegaiji
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
gaiji: charDecl
May contain
Example
<glyph xml:id="rstroke">  <glyphName>LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH A FUNNY STROKE</glyphName>  <charProp>   <localName>entity</localName>   <value>rstroke</value>  </charProp>  <figure>   <graphic url="glyph-rstroke.png"/>  </figure> </glyph>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <elementRef key="glyphName" minOccurs="0"/>
  <classRef key="model.descLike"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <elementRef key="charProp" minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <elementRef key="mapping" minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <elementRef key="figure" minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <classRef key="model.graphicLike"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <classRef key="model.noteLike"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element glyph
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      glyphName?,
      model.descLike*,
      charProp*,
      mapping*,
      figure*,
      model.graphicLike*,
      model.noteLike*
   )
}

13.1.44. <glyphName>

<glyphName> (character glyph name) contains the name of a glyph, expressed following Unicode conventions for character names. [5.2. Markup Constructs for Representation of Characters and Glyphs]
Modulegaiji
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
gaiji: glyph
May containCharacter data only
Note

For characters of non-ideographic scripts, a name following the conventions for Unicode names should be chosen. For ideographic scripts, an Ideographic Description Sequence (IDS) as described in Chapter 10.1 of the Unicode Standard is recommended where possible. Projects working in similar fields are recommended to coordinate and publish their list of <glyphName>s to facilitate data exchange.

Example
<glyphName>CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH 4EBA</glyphName>
Content model
<content>
 <textNode/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element glyphName { att.global.attributes, text }

13.1.45. <gram>

<gram> (grammatical information) within an entry in a dictionary or a terminological data file, contains grammatical information relating to a term, word, or form. [9.3.2. Grammatical Information]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
typeclassifies the grammatical information given according to some convenient typology—in the case of terminological information, preferably the dictionary of data element types specified in ISO 12620.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
pos
(part of speech) any of the word classes to which a word may be assigned in a given language, based on form, meaning, or a combination of features, e.g. noun, verb, adjective, etc.
gen
(gender) formal classification by which nouns and pronouns, and often accompanying modifiers, are grouped and inflected, or changed in form, so as to control certain syntactic relationships
num
(number) grammatical number, e.g. singular, plural, dual, …
animate
animate or inanimate
proper
proper noun or common noun
Note

A much fuller list of values for the type attribute may be generated from the data category registry accessible from http://www.isocat.org and maintained by ISO technical committee 37.

Member of
Contained by
dictionaries: dictScrap form gramGrp
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>pamplemousse</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <gram type="pos">noun</gram>   <gram type="gen">masculine</gram>  </gramGrp> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element gram
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   attribute type { text }?,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.46. <gramGrp>

<gramGrp> (grammatical information group) groups morpho-syntactic information about a lexical item, e.g. <pos>, <gen>, <number>, <case>, or <iType> (inflectional class). [9.3.2. Grammatical Information]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
core: cit
May contain
analysis: c pc
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>luire</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <pos>verb</pos>   <subc>intransitive</subc>  </gramGrp> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.inter"/>
  <classRef key="model.gramPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element gramGrp
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   (
      text
    | model.gLikemodel.phrasemodel.intermodel.gramPartmodel.global
   )*
}

13.1.47. <graphic>

<graphic> indicates the location of a graphic or illustration, either forming part of a text, or providing an image of it. [3.9. Graphics and Other Non-textual Components 11.1. Digital Facsimiles]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.media (@width, @height, @scale) (att.internetMedia (@mimeType)) att.resourced (@url)
Member of
Contained by
May containEmpty element
Note

The mimeType attribute should be used to supply the MIME media type of the image specified by the url attribute.

Within the body of a text, a <graphic> element indicates the presence of a graphic component in the source itself. Within the context of a <facsimile> or <sourceDoc> element, however, a <graphic> element provides an additional digital representation of some part of the source being encoded.

Example
<figure>  <graphic url="fig1.png"/>  <head>Figure One: The View from the Bridge</head>  <figDesc>A Whistleresque view showing four or five sailing boats in the foreground, and a    series of buoys strung out between them.</figDesc> </figure>
Example
<facsimile>  <surfaceGrp n="leaf1">   <surface>    <graphic url="page1.png"/>   </surface>   <surface>    <graphic url="page2-highRes.png"/>    <graphic url="page2-lowRes.png"/>   </surface>  </surfaceGrp> </facsimile>
Content model
<content>
 <classRef key="model.descLike"
  minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element graphic
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.media.attributes,
   att.resourced.attributes,
   model.descLike*
}

13.1.48. <head>

<head> (heading) contains any type of heading, for example the title of a section, or the heading of a list, glossary, manuscript description, etc. [4.2.1. Headings and Trailers]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.placement (@place) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
core: listBibl
figures: figure
textstructure: back body div front
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

The <head> element is used for headings at all levels; software which treats (e.g.) chapter headings, section headings, and list titles differently must determine the proper processing of a <head> element based on its structural position. A <head> occurring as the first element of a list is the title of that list; one occurring as the first element of a <div1> is the title of that chapter or section.

ExampleThe most common use for the <head> element is to mark the headings of sections. In older writings, the headings or incipits may be rather longer than usual in modern works. If a section has an explicit ending as well as a heading, it should be marked as a <trailer>, as in this example:
<div1 n="Itype="book">  <head>In the name of Christ here begins the first book of the ecclesiastical history of    Georgius Florentinus, known as Gregory, Bishop of Tours.</head>  <div2 type="section">   <head>In the name of Christ here begins Book I of the history.</head>   <p>Proposing as I do ...</p>   <p>From the Passion of our Lord until the death of Saint Martin four hundred and twelve      years passed.</p>   <trailer>Here ends the first Book, which covers five thousand, five hundred and ninety-six      years from the beginning of the world down to the death of Saint Martin.</trailer>  </div2> </div1>
ExampleWhen headings are not inline with the running text (see e.g. the heading "Secunda conclusio") they might however be encoded as if. The actual placement in the source document can be captured with the place attribute.
<div type="subsection">  <head place="margin">Secunda conclusio</head>  <p>   <lb n="1251"/>   <hi rend="large">Potencia: habitus: et actus: recipiunt speciem ab obiectis<supplied>.</supplied>   </hi>   <lb n="1252"/>Probatur sic. Omne importans necessariam habitudinem ad proprium    [...]  </p> </div>
ExampleThe <head> element is also used to mark headings of other units, such as lists:
With a few exceptions, connectives are equally useful in all kinds of discourse: description, narration, exposition, argument. <list rend="bulleted">  <head>Connectives</head>  <item>above</item>  <item>accordingly</item>  <item>across from</item>  <item>adjacent to</item>  <item>again</item>  <item> <!-- ... -->  </item> </list>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <elementRef key="lg"/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.inter"/>
  <classRef key="model.lLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element head
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.written.attributes,
   (
      text
    | lg
    | model.gLikemodel.phrasemodel.inter
    | model.lLike
    | model.global
   )*
}

13.1.49. <hi>

<hi> (highlighted) marks a word or phrase as graphically distinct from the surrounding text, for reasons concerning which no claim is made. [3.3.2.2. Emphatic Words and Phrases 3.3.2. Emphasis, Foreign Words, and Unusual Language]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<hi rend="gothic">And this Indenture further witnesseth</hi> that the said <hi rend="italic">Walter Shandy</hi>, merchant, in consideration of the said intended marriage ...
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element hi { att.global.attributes, att.written.attributes, macro.paraContent }

13.1.50. <hyph>

<hyph> (hyphenation) contains a hyphenated form of a dictionary headword, or hyphenation information in some other form. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) att.notated (@notation)
Member of
Contained by
core: cit
dictionaries: dictScrap form
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>competitor</orth>   <hyph>com|peti|tor</hyph>   <pron>k@m"petit@(r)</pron>  </form> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element hyph
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   att.notated.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.51. <iType>

<iType> (inflectional class) indicates the inflectional class associated with a lexical item. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
typeindicates the type of indicator used to specify the inflection class, when it is necessary to distinguish between the usual abbreviated indications (e.g. inv) and other kinds of indicators, such as special codes referring to conjugation patterns, etc.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
abbrev
abbreviated indicator
verbTable
coded reference to a table of verbs
Note

This element is synonymous with <gram type='inflectional type'>.

Member of
Contained by
dictionaries: dictScrap form gramGrp
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

May contain character data and phrase-level elements. Typical content will be invariant, n 3 etc.

Example
<form>  <orth>horrifier</orth>  <pron>ORifje</pron>  <iType type="vbtable">7</iType> </form>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element iType
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   attribute type { text }?,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.52. <idno>

<idno> (identifier) supplies any form of identifier used to identify some object, such as a bibliographic item, a person, a title, an organization, etc. in a standardized way. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 2.2.5. The Series Statement 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.typed (type, @subtype)
typecategorizes the identifier, for example as an ISBN, Social Security number, etc.
Derived fromatt.typed
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
ISBN
International Standard Book Number: a 13- or (if assigned prior to 2007) 10-digit identifying number assigned by the publishing industry to a published book or similar item, registered with the International ISBN Agency.
ISSN
International Standard Serial Number: an eight-digit number to uniquely identify a serial publication.
DOI
Digital Object Identifier: a unique string of letters and numbers assigned to an electronic document.
URI
Uniform Resource Identifier: a string of characters to uniquely identify a resource which usually contains indication of the means of accessing that resource, the name of its host, and its filepath.
VIAF
A data number in the Virtual Internet Authority File assigned to link different names in catalogs around the world for the same entity.
ESTC
English Short-Title Catalogue number: an identifying number assigned to a document in English printed in the British Isles or North America before 1801.
OCLC
OCLC control number (record number) for the union catalog record in WorldCat, a union catalog for member libraries in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative.
Member of
Contained by
May contain
gaiji: g
header: idno
character data
Note

<idno> should be used for labels which identify an object or concept in a formal cataloguing system such as a database or an RDF store, or in a distributed system such as the World Wide Web. Some suggested values for type on <idno> are ISBN, ISSN, DOI, and URI.

Example
<idno type="ISBN">978-1-906964-22-1</idno> <idno type="ISSN">0143-3385</idno> <idno type="DOI">10.1000/123</idno> <idno type="URI">http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/185922478</idno> <idno type="URI">http://authority.nzetc.org/463/</idno> <idno type="LT">Thomason Tract E.537(17)</idno> <idno type="Wing">C695</idno> <idno type="oldCat">  <g ref="#sym"/>345 </idno>
In the last case, the identifier includes a non-Unicode character which is defined elsewhere by means of a <glyph> or <char> element referenced here as #sym.
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <elementRef key="idno"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element idno
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.typed.attribute.subtype,
   attribute type
   {
      "ISBN" | "ISSN" | "DOI" | "URI" | "VIAF" | "ESTC" | "OCLC"
   }?,
   ( text | model.gLike | idno )*
}

13.1.53. <imprint>

<imprint> groups information relating to the publication or distribution of a bibliographic item. [3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
May contain
Example
<imprint>  <pubPlace>Oxford</pubPlace>  <publisher>Clarendon Press</publisher>  <date>1987</date> </imprint>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <elementRef key="classCode"/>
   <elementRef key="catRef"/>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <alternate>
    <classRef key="model.imprintPart"/>
    <classRef key="model.dateLike"/>
   </alternate>
   <elementRef key="respStmt" minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element imprint
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      ( classCode | catRef )*,
      ( ( model.imprintPart | model.dateLike ), respStmt*, model.global* )+
   )
}

13.1.54. <lang>

<lang> (language name) contains the name of a language mentioned in etymological or other linguistic discussion. [9.3.4. Etymological Information]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

May contain character data mixed with phrase-level elements.

Example
<cit type="cognate">  <lang>dän.</lang>  <form>   <orth xml:lang="da">indgang</orth>  </form> </cit>
Example
<cit type="etymon">  <lang>mhd.</lang>  <form type="variant">   <orth xml:lang="gmh">vreten</orth>  </form>  <form type="variant">   <orth xml:lang="gmh">vretten</orth>  </form>  <form type="variant">   <orth xml:lang="gmh">vraten</orth>  </form>  <def>entzünden; wundreiben; herumziehen; quälen; plagen</def> </cit>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element lang
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.55. <lbl>

<lbl> (label) contains a label for a form, example, translation, or other piece of information, e.g. abbreviation for, contraction of, literally, approximately, synonyms:, etc. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms 9.3.3.2. Translation Equivalents 9.3.5.3. Cross-References to Other Entries]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
typeclassifies the label using any convenient typology.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

Labels specifically relating to usage should be tagged with the special-purpose <usg> element rather than with the generic<lbl> element.

Example
<entry>  <form type="abbrev">   <orth>MTBF</orth>  </form>  <form type="full">   <lbl>abbrev. for</lbl>   <orth>mean time between failures</orth>  </form> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element lbl
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   attribute type { text }?,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.56. <licence>

<licence> contains information about a licence or other legal agreement applicable to the text. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.pointing (@targetLang, @target, @evaluate) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Member of
Contained by
header: availability
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

A <licence> element should be supplied for each licence agreement applicable to the text in question. The target attribute may be used to reference a full version of the licence. The when, notBefore, notAfter, from or to attributes may be used in combination to indicate the date or dates of applicability of the licence.

Example
<licence target="http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-NZETC-Help.html#licensing"> Licence: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 New Zealand Licence </licence>
Example
<availability>  <licence target="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/"   notBefore="2013-01-01">   <p>The Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) Licence      applies to this document.</p>   <p>The licence was added on January 1, 2013.</p>  </licence> </availability>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element licence
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.pointing.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}

13.1.57. <listBibl>

<listBibl> (citation list) contains a list of bibliographic citations of any kind. [3.11.1. Methods of Encoding Bibliographic References and Lists of References 2.2.7. The Source Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.declarable (@default) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<listBibl>  <head>Works consulted</head>  <bibl>Blain, Clements and Grundy: Feminist Companion to    Literature in English (Yale, 1990)  </bibl>  <biblStruct>   <analytic>    <title>The Interesting story of the Children in the Wood</title>   </analytic>   <monogr>    <title>The Penny Histories</title>    <author>Victor E Neuberg</author>    <imprint>     <publisher>OUP</publisher>     <date>1968</date>    </imprint>   </monogr>  </biblStruct> </listBibl>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <classRef key="model.headLike"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <alternate minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.biblLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.milestoneLike"/>
  </alternate>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <elementRef key="relation"/>
   <elementRef key="listRelation"/>
  </alternate>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element listBibl
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   (
      model.headLike*,
      ( model.biblLike | model.milestoneLike )+,
      ( relation | listRelation )*
   )
}

13.1.58. <mapping>

<mapping> (character mapping) contains one or more characters which are related to the parent character or glyph in some respect, as specified by the type attribute. [5.2. Markup Constructs for Representation of Characters and Glyphs]
Modulegaiji
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Contained by
gaiji: char glyph
May contain
gaiji: g
character data
Note

Suggested values for the type attribute include exact for exact equivalences, uppercase for uppercase equivalences, lowercase for lowercase equivalences, and simplified for simplified characters. The <g> elements contained by this element can point to either another <char> or <glyph>element or contain a character that is intended to be the target of this mapping.

Example
<mapping type="modern">r</mapping> <mapping type="standard"></mapping>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.xtext"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element mapping { att.global.attributes, att.typed.attributes, macro.xtext }

13.1.59. <metamark>

<metamark> contains or describes any kind of graphic or written signal within a document the function of which is to determine how it should be read rather than forming part of the actual content of the document. [11.3.4.2. Metamarks]
Moduletranscr
AttributesAttributes att.spanning (@spanTo) att.placement (@place) att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
functiondescribes the function (for example status, insertion, deletion, transposition) of the metamark.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.word
targetidentifies one or more elements to which the metamark applies.
StatusOptional
Datatype1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<surface>  <metamark function="usedrend="line"   target="#X2"/>  <zone xml:id="zone-X2">   <line>I am that halfgrown <add>angry</add> boy, fallen asleep</line>   <line>The tears of foolish passion yet undried</line>   <line>upon my cheeks.</line> <!-- ... -->   <line>I pass through <add>the</add> travels and <del>fortunes</del> of   <retrace>thirty</retrace>   </line>   <line>years and become old,</line>   <line>Each in its due order comes and goes,</line>   <line>And thus a message for me comes.</line>   <line>The</line>  </zone>  <metamark function="used"   target="#zone-X2">Entered - Yes</metamark> </surface>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element metamark
{
   att.spanning.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute function { text }?,
   attribute target { list { + } }?,
   macro.specialPara
}

13.1.60. <mood>

<mood> contains information about the grammatical mood of verbs (e.g. indicative, subjunctive, imperative). [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
Member of
Contained by
dictionaries: dictScrap form gramGrp
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

This element is synonymous with <gram type="mood">.

ExampleTaken from Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache. Veranstaltet und herausgegeben von Joachim Heinrich Campe. Vierter Theil. S - bis - T. (Braunschweig 1810. In der Schulbuchhandlung):
Treffen, v. unregelm. ... du triffst, ...
<entry>  <form type="inflected">   <gramGrp>    <per value="2"/>    <number value="singular"/>    <tns value="present"/>    <mood value="indicative"/>   </gramGrp>   <form type="personalpronoun">    <orth>du</orth>   </form>   <form type="headword">    <orth>     <oRef>triffst</oRef>    </orth>   </form>  </form> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element mood
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.61. <name>

<name> (name, proper noun) contains a proper noun or noun phrase. [3.5.1. Referring Strings]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) ) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence, @instant) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

Proper nouns referring to people, places, and organizations may be tagged instead with <persName>, <placeName>, or <orgName>, when the TEI module for names and dates is included.

Example
<name type="person">Thomas Hoccleve</name> <name type="place">Villingaholt</name> <name type="org">Vetus Latina Institut</name> <name type="personref="#HOC001">Occleve</name>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element name
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.personal.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.62. <namespace>

<namespace> supplies the formal name of the namespace to which the elements documented by its children belong. [2.3.4. The Tagging Declaration]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
namespecifies the full formal name of the namespace concerned.
StatusRequired
Datatypeteidata.namespace
Contained by
header: tagsDecl
May contain
header: tagUsage
Example
<namespace name="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">  <tagUsage gi="hioccurs="28withId="2"> Used only to mark English words    italicized in the copy text </tagUsage> </namespace>
Content model
<content>
 <elementRef key="tagUsage" minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element namespace { att.global.attributes, attribute name { text }, tagUsage+ }

13.1.63. <note>

<note> contains a note or annotation. [3.8.1. Notes and Simple Annotation 2.2.6. The Notes Statement 3.11.2.8. Notes and Statement of Language 9.3.5.4. Notes within Entries]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.placement (@place) att.pointing (@targetLang, @target, @evaluate) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.written (@hand)
anchoredindicates whether the copy text shows the exact place of reference for the note.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.truthValue
Defaulttrue
Note

In modern texts, notes are usually anchored by means of explicit footnote or endnote symbols. An explicit indication of the phrase or line annotated may however be used instead (e.g. ‘page 218, lines 3–4’). The anchored attribute indicates whether any explicit location is given, whether by symbol or by prose cross-reference. The value true indicates that such an explicit location is indicated in the copy text; the value false indicates that the copy text does not indicate a specific place of attachment for the note. If the specific symbols used in the copy text at the location the note is anchored are to be recorded, use the n attribute.

targetEndpoints to the end of the span to which the note is attached, if the note is not embedded in the text at that point.
StatusOptional
Datatype1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
Note

This attribute is retained for backwards compatibility; it may be removed at a subsequent release of the Guidelines. The recommended way of pointing to a span of elements is by means of the range function of XPointer, as further described in 16.2.4.6. range().

Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
ExampleIn the following example, the translator has supplied a footnote containing an explanation of the term translated as "painterly":
And yet it is not only in the great line of Italian renaissance art, but even in the painterly <note place="bottomtype="gloss"  resp="#MDMH">  <term xml:lang="de">Malerisch</term>. This word has, in the German, two distinct meanings, one objective, a quality residing in the object, the other subjective, a mode of apprehension and creation. To avoid confusion, they have been distinguished in English as <mentioned>picturesque</mentioned> and <mentioned>painterly</mentioned> respectively. </note> style of the Dutch genre painters of the seventeenth century that drapery has this psychological significance. <!-- elsewhere in the document --> <respStmt xml:id="MDMH">  <resp>translation from German to English</resp>  <name>Hottinger, Marie Donald Mackie</name> </respStmt>
For this example to be valid, the code MDMH must be defined elsewhere, for example by means of a responsibility statement in the associated TEI header.
ExampleThe global n attribute may be used to supply the symbol or number used to mark the note's point of attachment in the source text, as in the following example:
Mevorakh b. Saadya's mother, the matriarch of the family during the second half of the eleventh century, <note n="126anchored="true"> The alleged mention of Judah Nagid's mother in a letter from 1071 is, in fact, a reference to Judah's children; cf. above, nn. 111 and 54. </note> is well known from Geniza documents published by Jacob Mann.
However, if notes are numbered in sequence and their numbering can be reconstructed automatically by processing software, it may well be considered unnecessary to record the note numbers.
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element note
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.pointing.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.written.attributes,
   attribute anchored { text }?,
   attribute targetEnd { list { + } }?,
   macro.specialPara
}

13.1.64. <notesStmt>

<notesStmt> (notes statement) collects together any notes providing information about a text additional to that recorded in other parts of the bibliographic description. [2.2.6. The Notes Statement 2.2. The File Description]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
header: fileDesc
May contain
core: note
Note

Information of different kinds should not be grouped together into the same note.

Example
<notesStmt>  <note>Historical commentary provided by Mark Cohen</note>  <note>OCR scanning done at University of Toronto</note> </notesStmt>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.noteLike"/>
  <elementRef key="relatedItem"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element notesStmt { att.global.attributes, ( model.noteLike | relatedItem )+ }

13.1.65. <number>

<number> indicates grammatical number associated with a form, as given in a dictionary. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms 9.3.2. Grammatical Information]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
Member of
Contained by
dictionaries: dictScrap form gramGrp
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

This element is synonymous with <gram type="num">.

Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>wits</orth>   <pron>wIts</pron>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <number>pl</number>   <pos>n</pos>  </gramGrp> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element number
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.66. <oRef>

<oRef> (orthographic-form reference) in a dictionary example, indicates a reference to the orthographic form(s) of the headword. [9.4. Headword and Pronunciation References]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) att.pointing (@targetLang, @target, @evaluate) att.notated (@notation)
typeindicates the kind of typographic modification made to the headword in the reference.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
cap
(capital) indicates first letter is given as capital
noHyph
(no hyphen) indicates that the headword, though a prefix or suffix, loses its hyphen
Member of
Contained by
May contain
dictionaries: oRef
gaiji: g
character data
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>academy</orth>  </form>  <cit type="example">   <quote>The Royal <oRef type="cap"/> of Arts</quote>  </cit> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <elementRef key="oRef"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element oRef
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   att.pointing.attributes,
   att.notated.attributes,
   attribute type { text }?,
   ( text | model.gLike | oRef )*
}

13.1.67. <orth>

<orth> (orthographic form) gives the orthographic form of a dictionary headword. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) att.partials (@extent) att.notated (@notation)
typegives the type of spelling.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Member of
Contained by
core: cit
dictionaries: dictScrap form
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<form type="infl">  <orth>brags</orth>  <orth>bragging</orth>  <orth>bragged</orth> </form>
Example
<form>  <orth type="standardxml:lang="ko-Hang">치다</orth>  <orth type="transliterated"   xml:lang="ko-Latn">chida</orth> </form>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element orth
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   att.partials.attributes,
   att.notated.attributes,
   attribute type { text }?,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.68. <p>

<p> (paragraph) marks paragraphs in prose. [3.1. Paragraphs 7.2.5. Speech Contents]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.fragmentable (@part) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<p>Hallgerd was outside. <q>There is blood on your axe,</q> she said. <q>What have you    done?</q> </p> <p>  <q>I have now arranged that you can be married a second time,</q> replied Thjostolf. </p> <p>  <q>Then you must mean that Thorvald is dead,</q> she said. </p> <p>  <q>Yes,</q> said Thjostolf. <q>And now you must think up some plan for me.</q> </p>
Schematron
<s:report test="not(ancestor::tei:floatingText) and (ancestor::tei:p or ancestor::tei:ab) and not(parent::tei:exemplum |parent::tei:item |parent::tei:note |parent::tei:q |parent::tei:quote |parent::tei:remarks |parent::tei:said |parent::tei:sp |parent::tei:stage |parent::tei:cell |parent::tei:figure )"> Abstract model violation: Paragraphs may not occur inside other paragraphs or ab elements. </s:report>
Schematron
<s:report test="ancestor::tei:l[not(.//tei:note//tei:p[. = current()])]"> Abstract model violation: Lines may not contain higher-level structural elements such as div, p, or ab. </s:report>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element p
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.fragmentable.attributes,
   att.written.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.69. <pRef>

<pRef> (pronunciation reference) in a dictionary example, indicates a reference to the pronunciation(s) of the headword. [9.4. Headword and Pronunciation References]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.pointing (@targetLang, @target, @evaluate) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) att.notated (@notation)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
dictionaries: pRef
gaiji: g
character data
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <elementRef key="pRef"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element pRef
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.pointing.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   att.notated.attributes,
   ( text | model.gLike | pRef )*
}

13.1.70. <pc>

<pc> (punctuation character) contains a character or string of characters regarded as constituting a single punctuation mark. [17.1.2. Below the Word Level 17.4.2. Lightweight Linguistic Annotation]
Moduleanalysis
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.segLike (@function) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) (att.fragmentable (@part)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.linguistic (@lemma, @lemmaRef, @pos, @msd, @join)
forceindicates the extent to which this punctuation mark conventionally separates words or phrases
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
strong
the punctuation mark is a word separator
weak
the punctuation mark is not a word separator
inter
the punctuation mark may or may not be a word separator
unitprovides a name for the kind of unit delimited by this punctuation mark.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
preindicates whether this punctuation mark precedes or follows the unit it delimits.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.truthValue
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c
gaiji: g
character data
Example
<phr>  <w>do</w>  <w>you</w>  <w>understand</w>  <pc type="interrogative">?</pc> </phr>
ExampleExample encoding of the German sentence Wir fahren in den Urlaub., encoded with attributes from att.linguistic discussed in section [[undefined AILALW]].
<s>  <w pos="PPERmsd="1.Pl.*.Nom">Wir</w>  <w pos="VVFINmsd="1.Pl.Pres.Ind">fahren</w>  <w pos="APPRmsd="--">in</w>  <w pos="ARTmsd="Def.Masc.Akk.Sg.">den</w>  <w pos="NNmsd="Masc.Akk.Sg.">Urlaub</w>  <pc pos="$.msd="--join="left">.</pc> </s>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <elementRef key="c"/>
  <classRef key="model.pPart.edit"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element pc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.segLike.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.linguistic.attributes,
   attribute force { "strong" | "weak" | "inter" }?,
   attribute unit { text }?,
   attribute pre { text }?,
   ( text | model.gLike | c | model.pPart.edit )*
}

13.1.71. <per>

<per> (person) contains an indication of the grammatical person (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) associated with a given inflected form in a dictionary. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
Member of
Contained by
dictionaries: dictScrap form gramGrp
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

This element is synonymous with <gram type="person">.

ExampleTaken from Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache. Veranstaltet und herausgegeben von Joachim Heinrich Campe. Vierter Theil. S - bis - T. (Braunschweig 1810. In der Schulbuchhandlung):
Treffen, v. unregelm. ... du triffst, ...
<entry>  <form type="inflected">   <gramGrp>    <per value="2"/>    <number value="singular"/>    <tns value="present"/>    <mood value="indicative"/>   </gramGrp>   <form type="personalpronoun">    <orth>du</orth>   </form>   <form type="headword">    <orth>     <oRef>triffst</oRef>    </orth>   </form>  </form> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element per
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.72. <placeName>

<placeName> contains an absolute or relative place name. [13.2.3. Place Names]
Modulenamesdates
AttributesAttributes att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence, @instant) att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) ) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<placeName>  <settlement>Rochester</settlement>  <region>New York</region> </placeName>
Example
<placeName>  <geogName>Arrochar Alps</geogName>  <region>Argylshire</region> </placeName>
Example
<placeName>  <measure>10 miles</measure>  <offset>Northeast of</offset>  <settlement>Attica</settlement> </placeName>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element placeName
{
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   att.global.attributes,
   att.personal.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.73. <pos>

<pos> (part of speech) indicates the part of speech assigned to a dictionary headword such as noun, verb, or adjective. [9.3.2. Grammatical Information]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat))
Member of
Contained by
core: cit
dictionaries: dictScrap form gramGrp
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>isotope</orth>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <pos>adj</pos>  </gramGrp> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element pos
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.74. <projectDesc>

<projectDesc> (project description) describes in detail the aim or purpose for which an electronic file was encoded, together with any other relevant information concerning the process by which it was assembled or collected. [2.3.1. The Project Description 2.3. The Encoding Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default)
Member of
Contained by
header: encodingDesc
May contain
core: p
Example
<projectDesc>  <p>Texts collected for use in the Claremont Shakespeare Clinic, June 1990</p> </projectDesc>
Content model
<content>
 <classRef key="model.pLike" minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element projectDesc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   model.pLike+
}

13.1.75. <pron>

<pron> (pronunciation) contains the pronunciation(s) of the word. [9.3.1. Information on Written and Spoken Forms]
Moduledictionaries
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.lexicographic (@expand, @norm, @split, @value, @orig, @location, @mergedIn, @opt) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) att.notated (@notation) att.partials (@extent)
Member of
Contained by
core: cit
dictionaries: dictScrap form
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

The values used to specify the notation may be taken from any appropriate project-defined list of values. Typical values might be IPA, Murray, for example.

Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>obverse</orth>   <pron>'äb-`ərs</pron>,  <pron extent="pref">äb-`</pron>, <pron extent="pref">əb-`</pron>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <pos>n</pos>  </gramGrp> </entry>
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>transcription</orth>   <pron notation="IPA">trænskrɪpʃən</pron>  </form>  <gramGrp>   <pos>n</pos>  </gramGrp> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element pron
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.lexicographic.attributes,
   att.notated.attributes,
   att.partials.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.76. <pubPlace>

<pubPlace> (publication place) contains the name of the place where a bibliographic item was published. [3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Example
<publicationStmt>  <publisher>Oxford University Press</publisher>  <pubPlace>Oxford</pubPlace>  <date>1989</date> </publicationStmt>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element pubPlace
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.77. <publicationStmt>

<publicationStmt> (publication statement) groups information concerning the publication or distribution of an electronic or other text. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 2.2. The File Description]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
header: fileDesc
May contain
Note

Where a publication statement contains several members of the model.publicationStmtPart.agency or model.publicationStmtPart.detail classes rather than one or more paragraphs or anonymous blocks, care should be taken to ensure that the repeated elements are presented in a meaningful order. It is a conformance requirement that elements supplying information about publication place, address, identifier, availability, and date be given following the name of the publisher, distributor, or authority concerned, and preferably in that order.

Example
<publicationStmt>  <publisher>C. Muquardt </publisher>  <pubPlace>Bruxelles &amp; Leipzig</pubPlace>  <date when="1846"/> </publicationStmt>
Example
<publicationStmt>  <publisher>Chadwyck Healey</publisher>  <pubPlace>Cambridge</pubPlace>  <availability>   <p>Available under licence only</p>  </availability>  <date when="1992">1992</date> </publicationStmt>
Example
<publicationStmt>  <publisher>Zea Books</publisher>  <pubPlace>Lincoln, NE</pubPlace>  <date>2017</date>  <availability>   <p>This is an open access work licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.</p>  </availability>  <ptr target="http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/zeabook/55"/> </publicationStmt>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.publicationStmtPart.agency"/>
   <classRef key="model.publicationStmtPart.detail"
    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
  <classRef key="model.pLike" minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element publicationStmt
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      ( model.publicationStmtPart.agency, model.publicationStmtPart.detail* )+
    | model.pLike+
   )
}

13.1.78. <publisher>

<publisher> provides the name of the organization responsible for the publication or distribution of a bibliographic item. [3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

Use the full form of the name by which a company is usually referred to, rather than any abbreviation of it which may appear on a title page

Example
<imprint>  <pubPlace>Oxford</pubPlace>  <publisher>Clarendon Press</publisher>  <date>1987</date> </imprint>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element publisher
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

13.1.79. <quote>

<quote> (quotation) contains a phrase or passage attributed by the narrator or author to some agency external to the text. [3.3.3. Quotation 4.3.1. Grouped Texts]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.notated (@notation)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

If a bibliographic citation is supplied for the source of a quotation, the two may be grouped using the <cit> element.

Example
Lexicography has shown little sign of being affected by the work of followers of J.R. Firth, probably best summarized in his slogan, <quote>You shall know a word by the company it keeps</quote> <ref>(Firth, 1957)</ref>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element quote
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.notated.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}

13.1.80. <ref>

<ref> (reference) defines a reference to another location, possibly modified by additional text or comment. [3.6. Simple Links and Cross-References 16.1. Links]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.pointing (@targetLang, @target, @evaluate) att.internetMedia (@mimeType) att.cReferencing (@cRef) att.typed (type, @subtype)
type
StatusRequired
Suggested values include:
entry
sense
bibliography
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: c pc
dictionaries: lang lbl oRef pRef xr
figures: figure
gaiji: g
header: idno
linking: seg
namesdates: placeName
transcr: metamark
character data
Note

The target and cRef attributes are mutually exclusive.

Example
See especially <ref target="http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/Texts/A02.xml#s2">the second sentence</ref>
Example
See also <ref target="#locution">s.v. <term>locution</term> </ref>.
Schematron
<s:report test="@target and @cRef">Only one of the attributes @target' and @cRef' may be supplied on <s:name/> </s:report>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element ref
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.pointing.attributes,
   att.internetMedia.attributes,
   att.typed.attribute.subtype,
   att.cReferencing.attributes,
   attribute type { "entry" | "sense" | "bibliography" | xsd:Name },
   macro.paraContent
}

13.1.81. <rendition>

<rendition> supplies information about the rendition or appearance of one or more elements in the source text. [2.3.4. The Tagging Declaration]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.styleDef (@scheme, @schemeVersion)
scopewhere CSS is used, provides a way of defining ‘pseudo-elements’, that is, styling rules applicable to specific sub-portions of an element.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
first-line
styling applies to the first line of the target element
first-letter
styling applies to the first letter of the target element
before
styling should be applied immediately before the content of the target element
after
styling should be applied immediately after the content of the target element
selectorcontains a selector or series of selectors specifying the elements to which the contained style description applies, expressed in the language specified in the scheme attribute.
StatusOptional
Datatypeteidata.text
<rendition scheme="css"  selector="text, front, back, body, div, p, ab"> display: block; </rendition>
<rendition scheme="css"  selector="*[rend*=italic]"> font-style: italic; </rendition>
Note

Since the default value of the scheme attribute is assumed to be CSS, the default expectation for this attribute, in the absence of scheme, is that CSS selector syntax will be used.